Evolution has exploited the chemical properties of Ca(2+), which facilitate its reversible binding to the sites of irregular geometry offered by biological macromolecules, to select it as a carrier of cellular signals. A number of proteins bind Ca(2+) to specific sites: those intrinsic to membranes play the most important role in the spatial and temporal regulation of the concentration and movements of Ca(2+) inside cells. Those which are soluble, or organized in non-membranous structures, also decode the Ca(2+) message to be then transmitted to the targets of its regulation. Since Ca(2+) controls the most important processes in the life of cells, it must be very carefully controlled within the cytoplasm, where most of the targets of its signaling function reside. Membrane channels (in the plasma membrane and in the organelles) mediate the entrance of Ca(2+) into the cytoplasm, ATPases, exchangers, and the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake system remove Ca(2+) from it. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the external spaces, which is controlled essentially by its dynamic exchanges in the bone system, is much higher than inside cells, and can, under conditions of pathology, generate a situation of dangerous internal Ca(2+) overload. When massive and persistent, the Ca(2+) overload culminates in the death of the cell. Subtle conditions of cellular Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis that affect individual systems that control Ca(2+), generate cell disease phenotypes that are particularly severe in tissues in which the signaling function of Ca(2+) has special importance, e.g., the nervous system.

Calcium in health and disease.

BRINI, MARISA;OTTOLINI, DENIS;CALI', TITO;
2013

Abstract

Evolution has exploited the chemical properties of Ca(2+), which facilitate its reversible binding to the sites of irregular geometry offered by biological macromolecules, to select it as a carrier of cellular signals. A number of proteins bind Ca(2+) to specific sites: those intrinsic to membranes play the most important role in the spatial and temporal regulation of the concentration and movements of Ca(2+) inside cells. Those which are soluble, or organized in non-membranous structures, also decode the Ca(2+) message to be then transmitted to the targets of its regulation. Since Ca(2+) controls the most important processes in the life of cells, it must be very carefully controlled within the cytoplasm, where most of the targets of its signaling function reside. Membrane channels (in the plasma membrane and in the organelles) mediate the entrance of Ca(2+) into the cytoplasm, ATPases, exchangers, and the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake system remove Ca(2+) from it. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the external spaces, which is controlled essentially by its dynamic exchanges in the bone system, is much higher than inside cells, and can, under conditions of pathology, generate a situation of dangerous internal Ca(2+) overload. When massive and persistent, the Ca(2+) overload culminates in the death of the cell. Subtle conditions of cellular Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis that affect individual systems that control Ca(2+), generate cell disease phenotypes that are particularly severe in tissues in which the signaling function of Ca(2+) has special importance, e.g., the nervous system.
2013
Interrelations between essential meytalions and human diseases
9789400774995
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2828384
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