Type 1 diabetes (T1D) therapy requires multiple daily insulin injections to compensate the lack of endogenous insulin production due to β-cells destruction. An empirical standard formula (SF) is commonly used for such a task. Unfortunately, SF does not include information on glucose dynamics, e.g. the glucose rate-of-change (ROC) provided by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor. Hence, SF can sometimes lead to under/overestimations that can cause critical hypo/hyperglycemic episodes during/after the meal. Recently, to overcome this limitation, we proposed new linear regression models, integrating ROC information and personalized features. Despite the first encouraging results, the nonlinear nature of the problem calls for the application of nonlinear models. In this work, random forest (RF) and gradient boosting tree (GBT), nonlinear machine learning methodologies, were investigated. A dataset of 100 virtual subjects, opportunely divided into training and testing sets, was used. For each individual, a single-meal scenario with different meal conditions (preprandial ROC, BG and meal amounts) was simulated. The assessment was performed both in terms of accuracy in estimating the optimal bolus and glycemic control. Results were compared to the best performing linear model previously developed. The two tree-based models proposed lead to a statistically significant improvement of glycemic control compared to the linear approach, reducing the time spent in hypoglycemia (from 32.49% to 27.57-25.20% for RF and GBT, respectively). These results represent a preliminary step to prove that nonlinear machine learning techniques can improve the estimation of insulin bolus in T1D therapy. Particularly, RF and GBT were shown to outperform the previously linear models proposed.Clinical Relevance - Insulin bolus estimation with nonlinear machine learning techniques reduces the risk of adverse events in T1D therapy.

Nonlinear Machine Learning Models for Insulin Bolus Estimation in Type 1 Diabetes Therapy

Noaro G.;Cappon G.;Sparacino G.;Del Favero S.;Facchinetti A.
2020

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) therapy requires multiple daily insulin injections to compensate the lack of endogenous insulin production due to β-cells destruction. An empirical standard formula (SF) is commonly used for such a task. Unfortunately, SF does not include information on glucose dynamics, e.g. the glucose rate-of-change (ROC) provided by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor. Hence, SF can sometimes lead to under/overestimations that can cause critical hypo/hyperglycemic episodes during/after the meal. Recently, to overcome this limitation, we proposed new linear regression models, integrating ROC information and personalized features. Despite the first encouraging results, the nonlinear nature of the problem calls for the application of nonlinear models. In this work, random forest (RF) and gradient boosting tree (GBT), nonlinear machine learning methodologies, were investigated. A dataset of 100 virtual subjects, opportunely divided into training and testing sets, was used. For each individual, a single-meal scenario with different meal conditions (preprandial ROC, BG and meal amounts) was simulated. The assessment was performed both in terms of accuracy in estimating the optimal bolus and glycemic control. Results were compared to the best performing linear model previously developed. The two tree-based models proposed lead to a statistically significant improvement of glycemic control compared to the linear approach, reducing the time spent in hypoglycemia (from 32.49% to 27.57-25.20% for RF and GBT, respectively). These results represent a preliminary step to prove that nonlinear machine learning techniques can improve the estimation of insulin bolus in T1D therapy. Particularly, RF and GBT were shown to outperform the previously linear models proposed.Clinical Relevance - Insulin bolus estimation with nonlinear machine learning techniques reduces the risk of adverse events in T1D therapy.
2020
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS
978-1-7281-1990-8
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3385600
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