The cardiac troponin I gene is one of the few sarcomeric protein genes exclusively expressed in cardiac muscle. We show here that this specificity is controlled by a proximal promoter (-230/+16) in transfected cardiac cells in culture, in the adult hearts, and in transgenic animals. Functional analysis indicates that MEF2/Oct-1, Sp1, and GATA regulatory elements are required for optimal gene activation because selective mutations produce weak or inactive promoters. MEF2 and Oct-1 transcription factors bind to the same A/T-rich element. A mutation that blocks this binding markedly reduces gene activation in vivo and in vitro, and overexpression of MEF2A, MEF2C, and MEF2D in noncardiac cells transactivates the cardiac troponin I promoter. Disruption of these elements inactivates the cardiac troponin I promoter in cultured cardiac cells but has a less important role in transfected adult heart. Moreover, nuclear extracts from an almost pure population of adult cardiac cells contain much lower levels of GATA binding activity compared with fetal cardiac cells. These findings point to a differential role of GATA factors in the maintenance of gene expression in the adult heart as compared with the activation of cardiac genes in fetal cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of GATA family members transactivates the cardiac troponin I promoter, and GATA-5 and GATA-6 are stronger transactivators than GATA-4, a property apparently unique to the cardiac troponin I promoter. Transgenic mice carrying the -230/+126 base pair promoter express beta-galactosidase reporter gene in the heart both at early stages of cardiogenesis and in the adult animals. These results indicate that the ability of the cardiac troponin I proximal promoter to target expression of a downstream gene in the heart is also maintained when the transgene is integrated into the genome.

Combinatorial cis-acting elements regulate tissue-specific expression of the cardiac troponin I gene in vitro and in vivo

DI LISI, RAFFAELLA;MILLINO, CATERINA;CALABRIA, ELISA;SCHIAFFINO, STEFANO;AUSONI, SIMONETTA
1998

Abstract

The cardiac troponin I gene is one of the few sarcomeric protein genes exclusively expressed in cardiac muscle. We show here that this specificity is controlled by a proximal promoter (-230/+16) in transfected cardiac cells in culture, in the adult hearts, and in transgenic animals. Functional analysis indicates that MEF2/Oct-1, Sp1, and GATA regulatory elements are required for optimal gene activation because selective mutations produce weak or inactive promoters. MEF2 and Oct-1 transcription factors bind to the same A/T-rich element. A mutation that blocks this binding markedly reduces gene activation in vivo and in vitro, and overexpression of MEF2A, MEF2C, and MEF2D in noncardiac cells transactivates the cardiac troponin I promoter. Disruption of these elements inactivates the cardiac troponin I promoter in cultured cardiac cells but has a less important role in transfected adult heart. Moreover, nuclear extracts from an almost pure population of adult cardiac cells contain much lower levels of GATA binding activity compared with fetal cardiac cells. These findings point to a differential role of GATA factors in the maintenance of gene expression in the adult heart as compared with the activation of cardiac genes in fetal cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of GATA family members transactivates the cardiac troponin I promoter, and GATA-5 and GATA-6 are stronger transactivators than GATA-4, a property apparently unique to the cardiac troponin I promoter. Transgenic mice carrying the -230/+126 base pair promoter express beta-galactosidase reporter gene in the heart both at early stages of cardiogenesis and in the adult animals. These results indicate that the ability of the cardiac troponin I proximal promoter to target expression of a downstream gene in the heart is also maintained when the transgene is integrated into the genome.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/124861
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