The evolution of galaxy clustering from z=0 to z~=4.5 is analysed using the angular correlation function and the photometric redshift distribution of galaxies brighter than IAB<=28.5 in the Hubble Deep Field North. The reliability of the photometric redshift estimates is discussed on the basis of the available spectroscopic redshifts, comparing different codes and investigating the effects of photometric errors. The redshift bins in which the clustering properties are measured are then optimized to take into account the uncertainties of the photometric redshifts. The results show that the comoving correlation length r0 has a small decrease in the range 0<~z<~1 followed by an increase at higher z. We compare these results with the theoretical predictions of a variety of cosmological models belonging to the general class of Cold Dark Matter scenarios, including Einstein-de Sitter models, an open model and a flat model with non-zero cosmological constant. Comparison with the expected mass clustering evolution indicates that the observed high-redshift galaxies are biased tracers of the dark matter with an effective bias b strongly increasing with redshift. Assuming an Einstein-de Sitter universe, we obtain b~=2.5 at z~=2 and b~=5 at z~=4. These results support theoretical scenarios of biased galaxy formation in which the galaxies observed at high redshift are preferentially located in more massive haloes. Moreover, they suggest that the usual parameterization of the clustering evolution as ξ(r,z)=ξ(r,0)(1+z)-(3+ɛ) is not a good description for any value of ɛ. Comparison of the clustering amplitudes that we measured at z~=3 with those reported by Adelberger et al. and Giavalisco et al., based on a different selection, suggests that the clustering depends on the abundance of the objects: more abundant objects are less clustered, as expected in the paradigm of hierarchical galaxy formation. The strong clustering and high bias measured at z~=3 are consistent with the expected density of massive haloes predicted in the frame of the various cosmologies considered here. At z~=4, the strong clustering observed in the Hubble Deep Field requires a significant fraction of massive haloes to be already formed by that epoch. This feature could be a discriminant test for the cosmological parameters if confirmed by future observations.

Measuring and modelling the redshift evolution of clustering: the Hubble Deep Field North

CRISTIANI, STEFANO;MOSCARDINI, LAURO;MATARRESE, SABINO;LUCCHIN, FRANCESCO;
1999

Abstract

The evolution of galaxy clustering from z=0 to z~=4.5 is analysed using the angular correlation function and the photometric redshift distribution of galaxies brighter than IAB<=28.5 in the Hubble Deep Field North. The reliability of the photometric redshift estimates is discussed on the basis of the available spectroscopic redshifts, comparing different codes and investigating the effects of photometric errors. The redshift bins in which the clustering properties are measured are then optimized to take into account the uncertainties of the photometric redshifts. The results show that the comoving correlation length r0 has a small decrease in the range 0<~z<~1 followed by an increase at higher z. We compare these results with the theoretical predictions of a variety of cosmological models belonging to the general class of Cold Dark Matter scenarios, including Einstein-de Sitter models, an open model and a flat model with non-zero cosmological constant. Comparison with the expected mass clustering evolution indicates that the observed high-redshift galaxies are biased tracers of the dark matter with an effective bias b strongly increasing with redshift. Assuming an Einstein-de Sitter universe, we obtain b~=2.5 at z~=2 and b~=5 at z~=4. These results support theoretical scenarios of biased galaxy formation in which the galaxies observed at high redshift are preferentially located in more massive haloes. Moreover, they suggest that the usual parameterization of the clustering evolution as ξ(r,z)=ξ(r,0)(1+z)-(3+ɛ) is not a good description for any value of ɛ. Comparison of the clustering amplitudes that we measured at z~=3 with those reported by Adelberger et al. and Giavalisco et al., based on a different selection, suggests that the clustering depends on the abundance of the objects: more abundant objects are less clustered, as expected in the paradigm of hierarchical galaxy formation. The strong clustering and high bias measured at z~=3 are consistent with the expected density of massive haloes predicted in the frame of the various cosmologies considered here. At z~=4, the strong clustering observed in the Hubble Deep Field requires a significant fraction of massive haloes to be already formed by that epoch. This feature could be a discriminant test for the cosmological parameters if confirmed by future observations.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/135918
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 706
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 703
social impact