We present results on the X-ray properties of clusters and groups of galaxies, extracted from a large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We used the TREE+SPH code GADGET to simulate a concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model within a box of 192 h-1 Mpc on a side, 4803 dark matter particles and as many gas particles. The simulation includes radiative cooling assuming zero metallicity, star formation and supernova feedback. The very high dynamic range of the simulation allows us to cover a fairly large interval of cluster temperatures. We compute X-ray observables of the intracluster medium (ICM) for simulated groups and clusters and analyse their statistical properties. The simulated mass-temperature relation is consistent with observations once we mimic the procedure for mass estimates applied to real clusters. Also, with the adopted choices of Ωm= 0.3 and σ8= 0.8 for matter density and power spectrum normalization, respectively, the resulting X-ray temperature function agrees with the most recent observational determinations. The luminosity-temperature relation also agrees with observations for clusters with T>~ 2 keV. At the scale of groups, T<~ 1 keV, we find no change of slope in this relation. The entropy in central cluster regions is higher than predicted by gravitational heating alone, the excess being almost the same for clusters and groups. We also find that the simulated clusters appear to have suffered some overcooling. We find f*~= 0.2 for the fraction of baryons in stars within clusters, thus approximately twice as large as the value observed. Interestingly, temperature profiles of simulated clusters are found to increase steadily toward cluster centres. They decrease in the outer regions, much like observational data do at r>~ 0.2rvir, while not showing an isothermal regime followed by a smooth temperature decline in the innermost regions. Our results thus demonstrate the need for yet more efficient sources of energy feedback and/or the need to consider additional physical process which may be able to further suppress the gas density at the scale of poor clusters and groups, and, at the same time, to regulate the cooling of the ICM in central regions.

X-ray properties of galaxy clusters and groups from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

DOLAG, KLAUS;MOSCARDINI, LAURO;TORMEN, GIUSEPPE;
2004

Abstract

We present results on the X-ray properties of clusters and groups of galaxies, extracted from a large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We used the TREE+SPH code GADGET to simulate a concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model within a box of 192 h-1 Mpc on a side, 4803 dark matter particles and as many gas particles. The simulation includes radiative cooling assuming zero metallicity, star formation and supernova feedback. The very high dynamic range of the simulation allows us to cover a fairly large interval of cluster temperatures. We compute X-ray observables of the intracluster medium (ICM) for simulated groups and clusters and analyse their statistical properties. The simulated mass-temperature relation is consistent with observations once we mimic the procedure for mass estimates applied to real clusters. Also, with the adopted choices of Ωm= 0.3 and σ8= 0.8 for matter density and power spectrum normalization, respectively, the resulting X-ray temperature function agrees with the most recent observational determinations. The luminosity-temperature relation also agrees with observations for clusters with T>~ 2 keV. At the scale of groups, T<~ 1 keV, we find no change of slope in this relation. The entropy in central cluster regions is higher than predicted by gravitational heating alone, the excess being almost the same for clusters and groups. We also find that the simulated clusters appear to have suffered some overcooling. We find f*~= 0.2 for the fraction of baryons in stars within clusters, thus approximately twice as large as the value observed. Interestingly, temperature profiles of simulated clusters are found to increase steadily toward cluster centres. They decrease in the outer regions, much like observational data do at r>~ 0.2rvir, while not showing an isothermal regime followed by a smooth temperature decline in the innermost regions. Our results thus demonstrate the need for yet more efficient sources of energy feedback and/or the need to consider additional physical process which may be able to further suppress the gas density at the scale of poor clusters and groups, and, at the same time, to regulate the cooling of the ICM in central regions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/1372360
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