Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) employs an artificial viscosity to properly capture hydrodynamic shock waves. In its original formulation, the resulting numerical viscosity is large enough to suppress structure in the velocity field on scales well above the nominal resolution limit, and to damp the generation of turbulence by fluid instabilities. This could artificially suppress random gas motions in the intracluster medium (ICM), which are driven by infalling structures during the hierarchical structure formation process. We show that this is indeed the case by analysing results obtained with an SPH formulation where an individual, time-variable viscosity is used for each particle, following a suggestion by Morris & Monaghan. Using test calculations involving strong shocks, we demonstrate that this scheme captures shocks as well as the original formulation of SPH, but, in regions away from shocks, the numerical viscosity is much smaller. In a set of nine high-resolution simulations of cosmological galaxy cluster formation, we find that this low-viscosity formulation of SPH produces substantially higher levels of turbulent gas motions in the ICM, reaching a kinetic energy content in random gas motions (measured within a 1-Mpc cube) of up to 5-30 per cent of the thermal energy content, depending on cluster mass. This also has significant effects on radial gas profiles and bulk cluster properties. We find a central flattening of the entropy profile and a reduction of the central gas density in the low-viscosity scheme. As a consequence, the bolometric X-ray luminosity is decreased by about a factor of 2. However, the cluster temperature profile remains essentially unchanged. Interestingly, this tends to reduce the differences seen in SPH and adaptive mesh refinement simulations of cluster formation. Finally, invoking a model for particle acceleration by magnetohydrodynamics waves driven by turbulence, we find that efficient electron acceleration and thus diffuse radio emission can be powered in the clusters simulated with the low-viscosity scheme provided that more than 5-10 per cent of the turbulent energy density is associated with fast magneto-sonic modes.

Turbulent gas motions in galaxy cluster simulations: The role of smoothed particle hydrodynamics viscosity

DOLAG, KLAUS;TORMEN, GIUSEPPE
2005

Abstract

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) employs an artificial viscosity to properly capture hydrodynamic shock waves. In its original formulation, the resulting numerical viscosity is large enough to suppress structure in the velocity field on scales well above the nominal resolution limit, and to damp the generation of turbulence by fluid instabilities. This could artificially suppress random gas motions in the intracluster medium (ICM), which are driven by infalling structures during the hierarchical structure formation process. We show that this is indeed the case by analysing results obtained with an SPH formulation where an individual, time-variable viscosity is used for each particle, following a suggestion by Morris & Monaghan. Using test calculations involving strong shocks, we demonstrate that this scheme captures shocks as well as the original formulation of SPH, but, in regions away from shocks, the numerical viscosity is much smaller. In a set of nine high-resolution simulations of cosmological galaxy cluster formation, we find that this low-viscosity formulation of SPH produces substantially higher levels of turbulent gas motions in the ICM, reaching a kinetic energy content in random gas motions (measured within a 1-Mpc cube) of up to 5-30 per cent of the thermal energy content, depending on cluster mass. This also has significant effects on radial gas profiles and bulk cluster properties. We find a central flattening of the entropy profile and a reduction of the central gas density in the low-viscosity scheme. As a consequence, the bolometric X-ray luminosity is decreased by about a factor of 2. However, the cluster temperature profile remains essentially unchanged. Interestingly, this tends to reduce the differences seen in SPH and adaptive mesh refinement simulations of cluster formation. Finally, invoking a model for particle acceleration by magnetohydrodynamics waves driven by turbulence, we find that efficient electron acceleration and thus diffuse radio emission can be powered in the clusters simulated with the low-viscosity scheme provided that more than 5-10 per cent of the turbulent energy density is associated with fast magneto-sonic modes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/1483953
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