We examine the systematics affecting the X-ray mass estimators applied to a set of five galaxy clusters resolved at high resolution in hydrodynamic simulations, including cooling, star formation and feedback processes. These simulated objects are processed through the X-ray Map Simulator, X-MAS, to provide Chandra-like long exposures that are analysed to reconstruct the gas temperature, density and mass profiles used as input. These clusters have different dynamic state: we consider a hot cluster with temperature T = 11.4keV, a perturbed cluster with T = 3.9keV, a merging object with T = 3.6keV, and two relaxed systems with T = 3.3keV and T = 2.7keV, respectively. These systems are located at z = 0.175 so that their emission fits within the Chandra ACIS-S3 chip between 0.6 and 1.2 R<SUB>500</SUB>. We find that the mass profile obtained via a direct application of the hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) equation is dependent upon the measured temperature profile. An irregular radial distribution of the temperature values, with associated large errors, induces a significant scatter on the reconstructed mass measurements. At R<SUB>2500</SUB>, the actual mass is recovered within 1σ, although we notice this estimator shows high statistical errors due to high level of Chandra background. Instead, the poorness of the β-model in describing the gas density profile makes the evaluated masses to be underestimated by ~40 per cent with respect to the true mass, both with an isothermal and a polytropic temperature profile. We also test ways to recover the mass by adopting an analytic mass model, such as those proposed by Nvarro, Frenk & White and Rasia, Tormen & Moscardini, and fitting the temperature profile expected from the HE equation to the observed one. We conclude that the methods of the HE equation and those of the analytic fits provide a more robust mass estimation than the ones based on the β-model. In the present work, the main limitation for a precise mass reconstruction is to ascribe to the relatively high level of the background chosen to reproduce the Chandra one. After artificially reducing the total background by a factor of 100, we find that the estimated mass significantly underestimates the true mass profiles. This is manly due (i) to the neglected contribution of the gas bulk motions to the total energy budget and (ii) to the bias towards lower values of the X-ray temperature measurements because of the complex thermal structure of the emitting plasma.

Systematics in the X-ray cluster mass estimators

RASIA, ELENA;MOSCARDINI, LAURO;DOLAG, KLAUS;TORMEN, GIUSEPPE;
2006

Abstract

We examine the systematics affecting the X-ray mass estimators applied to a set of five galaxy clusters resolved at high resolution in hydrodynamic simulations, including cooling, star formation and feedback processes. These simulated objects are processed through the X-ray Map Simulator, X-MAS, to provide Chandra-like long exposures that are analysed to reconstruct the gas temperature, density and mass profiles used as input. These clusters have different dynamic state: we consider a hot cluster with temperature T = 11.4keV, a perturbed cluster with T = 3.9keV, a merging object with T = 3.6keV, and two relaxed systems with T = 3.3keV and T = 2.7keV, respectively. These systems are located at z = 0.175 so that their emission fits within the Chandra ACIS-S3 chip between 0.6 and 1.2 R500. We find that the mass profile obtained via a direct application of the hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) equation is dependent upon the measured temperature profile. An irregular radial distribution of the temperature values, with associated large errors, induces a significant scatter on the reconstructed mass measurements. At R2500, the actual mass is recovered within 1σ, although we notice this estimator shows high statistical errors due to high level of Chandra background. Instead, the poorness of the β-model in describing the gas density profile makes the evaluated masses to be underestimated by ~40 per cent with respect to the true mass, both with an isothermal and a polytropic temperature profile. We also test ways to recover the mass by adopting an analytic mass model, such as those proposed by Nvarro, Frenk & White and Rasia, Tormen & Moscardini, and fitting the temperature profile expected from the HE equation to the observed one. We conclude that the methods of the HE equation and those of the analytic fits provide a more robust mass estimation than the ones based on the β-model. In the present work, the main limitation for a precise mass reconstruction is to ascribe to the relatively high level of the background chosen to reproduce the Chandra one. After artificially reducing the total background by a factor of 100, we find that the estimated mass significantly underestimates the true mass profiles. This is manly due (i) to the neglected contribution of the gas bulk motions to the total energy budget and (ii) to the bias towards lower values of the X-ray temperature measurements because of the complex thermal structure of the emitting plasma.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/1565796
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