Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare primary low-grade astrocytic tumor, recently classified as a neuroglial tumor. It generally occurs in children and young adults and shows benign behaviour (WHO II), although an anaplastic variant and malignant potential have been described. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with malignant transformation have been reported in three out of eight patients operated on for this type of tumor in our department in the last 15 years. The three patients were two adult women and a child, the primary tumors were located in the cortex of the right temporal lobe, and treatment consisted of complete surgical resection. Histological examination revealed simple PXA in two patients and a PXA with anaplastic foci in the other. Mean recurrence time was 5.7 years, with the original xanthoastrocytoma evolving to glioblastoma in two cases and anaplastic astrocytoma in the third. All three patients underwent a second operation, followed by adjuvant therapies. Two died from tumor progression and one from brain edema after intracerebral haemorrhage. A review of the available PXA literature dating back to 1979 revealed 16 cases of primary anaplastic astrocytoma and 21 cases of PXA with malignant transformation. Our experience adds three more cases of malignant transformations, outlining once again the potential malignancy of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas and the fact that prognosis in these cases is the same as for primary anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Analysis of glioneuronal markers, Ki67 and p53 in all pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas did not prove to be a discriminating factor to identify a subgroup of xanthoastrocytomas prone to malignancy. Accordingly, these tumors demand close long-term clinical and radiological follow-up.

Malignant progression in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: personal experience and review of the literature.

MARTON, ELISABETTA;LONGATTI, PIERLUIGI
2007

Abstract

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare primary low-grade astrocytic tumor, recently classified as a neuroglial tumor. It generally occurs in children and young adults and shows benign behaviour (WHO II), although an anaplastic variant and malignant potential have been described. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with malignant transformation have been reported in three out of eight patients operated on for this type of tumor in our department in the last 15 years. The three patients were two adult women and a child, the primary tumors were located in the cortex of the right temporal lobe, and treatment consisted of complete surgical resection. Histological examination revealed simple PXA in two patients and a PXA with anaplastic foci in the other. Mean recurrence time was 5.7 years, with the original xanthoastrocytoma evolving to glioblastoma in two cases and anaplastic astrocytoma in the third. All three patients underwent a second operation, followed by adjuvant therapies. Two died from tumor progression and one from brain edema after intracerebral haemorrhage. A review of the available PXA literature dating back to 1979 revealed 16 cases of primary anaplastic astrocytoma and 21 cases of PXA with malignant transformation. Our experience adds three more cases of malignant transformations, outlining once again the potential malignancy of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas and the fact that prognosis in these cases is the same as for primary anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Analysis of glioneuronal markers, Ki67 and p53 in all pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas did not prove to be a discriminating factor to identify a subgroup of xanthoastrocytomas prone to malignancy. Accordingly, these tumors demand close long-term clinical and radiological follow-up.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/1774261
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