The human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) upstream of the major transcription initiation site. In this article, we demonstrate by primer-extension experiments, PAGE, chemical footprinting, CD, UV and FRET experiments that the G-rich strand of NHE (32R) folds into intra-molecular G-quadruplex structures. Fluorescence data show that 32R in 100 mM KCl melts with a biphasic profile, showing the formation of two distinct G-quadruplexes with T(m) of approximately 55 degrees C (Q(1)) and approximately 72 degrees C (Q(2)). DMS-footprinting and CD suggest that Q(1) can be a parallel and Q(2) a mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex. When dsNHE (32R hybridized to its complementary) is incubated with a nuclear extract from Panc-1 cells, three DNA-protein complexes are observed by EMSA. The complex of slower mobility is competed by quadruplex 32R, but not by mutant oligonucleotides, which cannot form a quadruplex structure. Using paramagnetic beads coupled with 32R, we pulled down from the Panc-1 extract proteins with affinity for quadruplex 32R. One of these is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, which was previously reported to unfold quadruplex DNA. Our study suggests a role of quadruplex DNA in KRAS transcription and provides the basis for the rationale design of molecular strategies to inhibit the expression of KRAS.

Structural polymorphism within a regulatory element of the human KRAS promoter: formation of G4-DNA recognized by nuclear proteins

SPOLAORE, BARBARA;
2008

Abstract

The human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) upstream of the major transcription initiation site. In this article, we demonstrate by primer-extension experiments, PAGE, chemical footprinting, CD, UV and FRET experiments that the G-rich strand of NHE (32R) folds into intra-molecular G-quadruplex structures. Fluorescence data show that 32R in 100 mM KCl melts with a biphasic profile, showing the formation of two distinct G-quadruplexes with T(m) of approximately 55 degrees C (Q(1)) and approximately 72 degrees C (Q(2)). DMS-footprinting and CD suggest that Q(1) can be a parallel and Q(2) a mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex. When dsNHE (32R hybridized to its complementary) is incubated with a nuclear extract from Panc-1 cells, three DNA-protein complexes are observed by EMSA. The complex of slower mobility is competed by quadruplex 32R, but not by mutant oligonucleotides, which cannot form a quadruplex structure. Using paramagnetic beads coupled with 32R, we pulled down from the Panc-1 extract proteins with affinity for quadruplex 32R. One of these is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, which was previously reported to unfold quadruplex DNA. Our study suggests a role of quadruplex DNA in KRAS transcription and provides the basis for the rationale design of molecular strategies to inhibit the expression of KRAS.
2008
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2269800
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