Abstract: Gastric carcinogenesis is a complex, multistep and multifactorial event, characterized by progressive cyto-histological dedifferentiation, in which the role of Helicobacter pylori infection has been established. Among the pathways relevant to gastric carcinogenesis and correlated with H. pylori infection, it has been demonstrated that the production of reactive oxygen species, with damage to the DNA, may be quite important. Oxidative damage, alone and/or in combination with exogenous and endogenous factors, induces several molecular changes. The assumption is that, in precancerous lesions, these molecular changes belong to the same biological spectrum as their invasive counterpart. The molecular profile of these preneoplastic lesions is heterogeneous, however, and there are still no molecular markers enabling the distinction between atypical hyperplastic lesions and low-grade noninvasive neoplasia (NiN) or between high-grade NiN and early invasive neoplasia. Indeed, within the spectrum of morphological changes characterizing this multistep evolution, dysplasia (NiN) is the lesion coming closest to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma. Several of the genetic and epigenetic alterations reported in gastric precancerous lesions affect DNA repair system genes, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, growth factors, and adhesion molecules. Although we await reliable molecular markers, it is best to monitor patients harboring NiN closely with endoscopy and extensive bioptic sampling, and to eradicate any H. pylori to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and its consequent progression. The growing body of evidence of the regression of precancerous changes and the high prevalence of superficial gastric carcinoma demonstrated in long-term follow-up studies on NiN make this approach mandatory.

Helicobacter pylori, inflammation, oxidative damage and gastric cancer: a morphological, biological and molecular pathway.

FARINATI, FABIO;BORTOLAMI, MARINA;NITTI, DONATO;ZANINOTTO, GIOVANNI;RUGGE, MASSIMO
2008

Abstract

Abstract: Gastric carcinogenesis is a complex, multistep and multifactorial event, characterized by progressive cyto-histological dedifferentiation, in which the role of Helicobacter pylori infection has been established. Among the pathways relevant to gastric carcinogenesis and correlated with H. pylori infection, it has been demonstrated that the production of reactive oxygen species, with damage to the DNA, may be quite important. Oxidative damage, alone and/or in combination with exogenous and endogenous factors, induces several molecular changes. The assumption is that, in precancerous lesions, these molecular changes belong to the same biological spectrum as their invasive counterpart. The molecular profile of these preneoplastic lesions is heterogeneous, however, and there are still no molecular markers enabling the distinction between atypical hyperplastic lesions and low-grade noninvasive neoplasia (NiN) or between high-grade NiN and early invasive neoplasia. Indeed, within the spectrum of morphological changes characterizing this multistep evolution, dysplasia (NiN) is the lesion coming closest to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma. Several of the genetic and epigenetic alterations reported in gastric precancerous lesions affect DNA repair system genes, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, growth factors, and adhesion molecules. Although we await reliable molecular markers, it is best to monitor patients harboring NiN closely with endoscopy and extensive bioptic sampling, and to eradicate any H. pylori to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and its consequent progression. The growing body of evidence of the regression of precancerous changes and the high prevalence of superficial gastric carcinoma demonstrated in long-term follow-up studies on NiN make this approach mandatory.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2433578
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