Synergy in flame retardancy of polyurethane foams between phosphorus-based flame retardant (aluminium phosphinate) and layered silicates has been investigated. We used pristine montmorillonite as well as ammonium modified clay (commercially available) and diphosphonium modified clay, which were synthesised by the intercalation of the quaternary diphosphonium salt according to a procedure reported here. The morphology of the foams was characterised through X-ray diffraction (XRD), while thermal properties were characterised by oxygen index test, cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphological characterisation showed that pristine and diphosphonium modified clays are almost slightly intercalated, while ammonium modified one is very well dispersed. The results of thermal characterisation showed that in the presence of phosphinate enhancements of oxygen index, fire behaviour, measured by cone calorimeter, and thermal stability have been achieved. Phosphinate is therefore an efficient flame retardant for polyurethane foams and its flame retardancy action takes place in both condensed and gas phases. Pristine and ammonium modified layered silicate bring some enhancements of thermal stability while having no important effect in decreasing peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat evolved (THE) when used in conjunction with phosphinate; their main advantage is related to the enhancement of compactness of the char layer formed. Diphosphonium clay is instead effective in further improving the fire behaviour of the foams because of the flame retardancy action of phosphonium: both PHRR and THE were decreased. The analysis of cone calorimeter data showed that clays act through physical effect constituting a barrier at the surface which is effective in preventing or slowing the diffusion of volatiles and oxygen, while phosphinate and phosphonium are more effective owing to their combined action in both condensed and gas phases.

Synergism between flame retardant and modified layered silicate on thermal stability and fire behaviour of polyurethane nanocomposite foams

MODESTI, MICHELE;LORENZETTI, ALESSANDRA;BESCO, STEFANO;HRELJA, DENIS;BERTANI, ROBERTA;MICHELIN, RINO
2008

Abstract

Synergy in flame retardancy of polyurethane foams between phosphorus-based flame retardant (aluminium phosphinate) and layered silicates has been investigated. We used pristine montmorillonite as well as ammonium modified clay (commercially available) and diphosphonium modified clay, which were synthesised by the intercalation of the quaternary diphosphonium salt according to a procedure reported here. The morphology of the foams was characterised through X-ray diffraction (XRD), while thermal properties were characterised by oxygen index test, cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphological characterisation showed that pristine and diphosphonium modified clays are almost slightly intercalated, while ammonium modified one is very well dispersed. The results of thermal characterisation showed that in the presence of phosphinate enhancements of oxygen index, fire behaviour, measured by cone calorimeter, and thermal stability have been achieved. Phosphinate is therefore an efficient flame retardant for polyurethane foams and its flame retardancy action takes place in both condensed and gas phases. Pristine and ammonium modified layered silicate bring some enhancements of thermal stability while having no important effect in decreasing peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat evolved (THE) when used in conjunction with phosphinate; their main advantage is related to the enhancement of compactness of the char layer formed. Diphosphonium clay is instead effective in further improving the fire behaviour of the foams because of the flame retardancy action of phosphonium: both PHRR and THE were decreased. The analysis of cone calorimeter data showed that clays act through physical effect constituting a barrier at the surface which is effective in preventing or slowing the diffusion of volatiles and oxygen, while phosphinate and phosphonium are more effective owing to their combined action in both condensed and gas phases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2440880
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