Abstract INTRODUCTION: Transnasal endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas is recommended for patients with CSF leaks who do not respond to conservative treatment. It is a safer and more successful alternative to transcranial surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present our experience on using transnasal endoscopy for the repair of anterior skull base cerebrospinal fluid fistulas. Between 1999 and 2003 we observed 20 patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The etiology was heterogeneous: post-traumatic in 6 cases, iatrogenic in 6 cases (one interesting case of meningioma of the sphenoethmoid plate), dysembryogenetic - due to encephaloceles - in 4 patients (one with Cruzon syndrome and one with Down syndrome) and idiopathic in the other 4 patients. Use of a rigid transnasal endoscope allowed the localization and repair of all fistulas, with the use of fluorescein in 6 cases. Different grafts were used, in particular fat, bone or chondral septum with mucoperiosteum or perichondral mucosa. Generally the graft was inserted with the underlay or the sandwich technique. Lumbar drainage was used in the postoperative period only in 6 cases. No antibiotic prophylactic therapy was used. RESULTS: Endoscopy was successful in 90 % of patients at the first attempt, and in 95 % of patients at the second approach. We had two late complications such as infections. In one child with a post-traumatic fistula and shunt for hydrocephalus, we observed meningitis 2 years after the first endoscopic surgery and he underwent both transnasal endoscopic surgery and transcranial surgery. The second patient was a woman with a spontaneous fistula, who had rhinoliquorrhea three years after the first surgical treatment. During surgery a strange similar purulent material filling the submucous space of the ethmoid roof was found, suggestive for an intranasal abscess that was removed. We did not see any complications such as hematomas or seizures. The follow-up (range: 6 months to 3 years) made both with MRI and rhinoscopy has not shown any relapse until now in 19 of 20 patients treated only with endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic approach is highly effective and safe in the treatment of CSF fistulas, with great visualization and minimal invasiveness, for which it is associated to a very low morbidity. The fluorescein technique is extremely helpful for the diagnosis and surgery of CSF leaks.

Transnasal endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and encephaloceles: surgical indications and complications

MARTON, ELISABETTA;LONGATTI, PIERLUIGI
2005

Abstract

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Transnasal endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas is recommended for patients with CSF leaks who do not respond to conservative treatment. It is a safer and more successful alternative to transcranial surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present our experience on using transnasal endoscopy for the repair of anterior skull base cerebrospinal fluid fistulas. Between 1999 and 2003 we observed 20 patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The etiology was heterogeneous: post-traumatic in 6 cases, iatrogenic in 6 cases (one interesting case of meningioma of the sphenoethmoid plate), dysembryogenetic - due to encephaloceles - in 4 patients (one with Cruzon syndrome and one with Down syndrome) and idiopathic in the other 4 patients. Use of a rigid transnasal endoscope allowed the localization and repair of all fistulas, with the use of fluorescein in 6 cases. Different grafts were used, in particular fat, bone or chondral septum with mucoperiosteum or perichondral mucosa. Generally the graft was inserted with the underlay or the sandwich technique. Lumbar drainage was used in the postoperative period only in 6 cases. No antibiotic prophylactic therapy was used. RESULTS: Endoscopy was successful in 90 % of patients at the first attempt, and in 95 % of patients at the second approach. We had two late complications such as infections. In one child with a post-traumatic fistula and shunt for hydrocephalus, we observed meningitis 2 years after the first endoscopic surgery and he underwent both transnasal endoscopic surgery and transcranial surgery. The second patient was a woman with a spontaneous fistula, who had rhinoliquorrhea three years after the first surgical treatment. During surgery a strange similar purulent material filling the submucous space of the ethmoid roof was found, suggestive for an intranasal abscess that was removed. We did not see any complications such as hematomas or seizures. The follow-up (range: 6 months to 3 years) made both with MRI and rhinoscopy has not shown any relapse until now in 19 of 20 patients treated only with endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic approach is highly effective and safe in the treatment of CSF fistulas, with great visualization and minimal invasiveness, for which it is associated to a very low morbidity. The fluorescein technique is extremely helpful for the diagnosis and surgery of CSF leaks.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/2446510
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