In non-proliferating cells mitochondrial (mt) thymidine kinase (TK2) salvages thymidine derived from the extracellular milieu for the synthesis of mt dTTP. TK2 is a synthetic enzyme in a network of cytosolic and mt proteins with either synthetic or catabolic functions regulating the dTTP pool. In proliferating cultured cells the canonical cytosolic ribonucleotide reductase (R1-R2) is the prominent synthetic enzyme that by de novo synthesis provides most of dTTP for mt DNA replication. In non-proliferating cells p53R2 substitutes for R2. Catabolic enzymes safeguard the size of the dTTP pool: thymidine phosphorylase by degradation of thymidine and deoxyribonucleotidases by degradation of dTMP. Genetic deficiencies in three of the participants in the network, TK2, p53R2, or thymidine phosphorylase, result in severe mt DNA pathologies. Here we demonstrate the interdependence of the different enzymes of the network. We quantify changes in the size and turnover of the dTTP pool after inhibition of TK2 by RNA interference, of p53R2 with hydroxyurea, and of thymidine phosphorylase with 5-bromouracil. In proliferating cells the de novo pathway dominates, supporting large cytosolic and mt dTTP pools, whereas TK2 is dispensable, even in cells lacking the cytosolic thymidine kinase. In non-proliferating cells the small dTTP pools depend on the activities of both R1-p53R2 and TK2. The activity of TK2 is curbed by thymidine phosphorylase, which degrades thymidine in the cytoplasm, thus limiting the availability of thymidine for phosphorylation by TK2 in mitochondria. The dTTP pool shows an exquisite sensitivity to variations of thymidine concentrations at the nanomolar level.

Mitochondrial thymidine kinase and the enzymatic network regulating thymidine triphosphate pools in cultured human cells

RAMPAZZO, CHIARA;FABRIS, SONIA;FRANZOLIN, ELISA;FRANGINI, MIRIAM;BIANCHI, VERA
2007

Abstract

In non-proliferating cells mitochondrial (mt) thymidine kinase (TK2) salvages thymidine derived from the extracellular milieu for the synthesis of mt dTTP. TK2 is a synthetic enzyme in a network of cytosolic and mt proteins with either synthetic or catabolic functions regulating the dTTP pool. In proliferating cultured cells the canonical cytosolic ribonucleotide reductase (R1-R2) is the prominent synthetic enzyme that by de novo synthesis provides most of dTTP for mt DNA replication. In non-proliferating cells p53R2 substitutes for R2. Catabolic enzymes safeguard the size of the dTTP pool: thymidine phosphorylase by degradation of thymidine and deoxyribonucleotidases by degradation of dTMP. Genetic deficiencies in three of the participants in the network, TK2, p53R2, or thymidine phosphorylase, result in severe mt DNA pathologies. Here we demonstrate the interdependence of the different enzymes of the network. We quantify changes in the size and turnover of the dTTP pool after inhibition of TK2 by RNA interference, of p53R2 with hydroxyurea, and of thymidine phosphorylase with 5-bromouracil. In proliferating cells the de novo pathway dominates, supporting large cytosolic and mt dTTP pools, whereas TK2 is dispensable, even in cells lacking the cytosolic thymidine kinase. In non-proliferating cells the small dTTP pools depend on the activities of both R1-p53R2 and TK2. The activity of TK2 is curbed by thymidine phosphorylase, which degrades thymidine in the cytoplasm, thus limiting the availability of thymidine for phosphorylation by TK2 in mitochondria. The dTTP pool shows an exquisite sensitivity to variations of thymidine concentrations at the nanomolar level.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/2456598
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