The recent determination of their primary sequence has lead to the discovery of the metallo-proteolytic activity of the bacterial toxins responsible for tetanus, botulism and anthrax. The protease domain of these toxins enters into the cytosol where it displays a zinc-dependent endopeptidase activity of remarkable specificity. Tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxins type B, D, F and G cleave VAMP, an integral protein of the neurotransmitter containing synaptic vesicles. Botulinum neurotoxins type A and E cleave SNAP-25, while the type C neurotoxin cleaves both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, two proteins located on the cytosolic face of the presynaptic membrane. Such specific proteolysis leads to an impaired function of the neuroexocytosis machinery with blockade of neurotransmitter release and consequent paralysis. The lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis is specific for the MAPkinase-kinases which are cleaved within their amino terminus. In this case, however, such specific biochemical lesion could not be correlated with the pathogenesis of anthrax. The recently determined sequence of the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori contains within its amino terminal domain elements related to serine-proteases, but such an activity as well as its cytosolic target remains to be detected.

Bacterial toxins with intracellular protease activity

ROSSETTO, ORNELLA;DE BERNARD, MARINA;PELLIZZARI, ROSSELLA;CACCIN, PAOLA;SCHIAVO, GIAMPIETRO;MONTECUCCO, CESARE
2000

Abstract

The recent determination of their primary sequence has lead to the discovery of the metallo-proteolytic activity of the bacterial toxins responsible for tetanus, botulism and anthrax. The protease domain of these toxins enters into the cytosol where it displays a zinc-dependent endopeptidase activity of remarkable specificity. Tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxins type B, D, F and G cleave VAMP, an integral protein of the neurotransmitter containing synaptic vesicles. Botulinum neurotoxins type A and E cleave SNAP-25, while the type C neurotoxin cleaves both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, two proteins located on the cytosolic face of the presynaptic membrane. Such specific proteolysis leads to an impaired function of the neuroexocytosis machinery with blockade of neurotransmitter release and consequent paralysis. The lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis is specific for the MAPkinase-kinases which are cleaved within their amino terminus. In this case, however, such specific biochemical lesion could not be correlated with the pathogenesis of anthrax. The recently determined sequence of the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori contains within its amino terminal domain elements related to serine-proteases, but such an activity as well as its cytosolic target remains to be detected.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2458317
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 22
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 22
social impact