Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug, which selectively inhibits replication of members of the herpes group of DNA viruses with low cell toxicity. Valaciclovir (VACV), a prodrug of ACV is usually preferred in the oral treatment of viral infections, mainly herpes simplex virus (HSV). Also other analogues such as ganciclovir and penciclovir are discussed here. The former acts against cytomegalovirus (CMV) in general and the latter against CMV retinitis. The action mechanism of these antiviral drugs is presented briefly here, mainly via phosphorylation and inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase. The therapeutic use and the pharmacokinetics are also outlined. The measurement of the concentration of acyclovir and related compounds in biological samples poses a particularly significant challenge because these drugs tend to be structurally similar to endogenous substances. The analysis requires the use of highly selective analytical techniques and chromatography methods are a first choice to determine drug content in pharmaceuticals and to measure them in body fluids. Chromatography can be considered the procedure of choice for the bio-analysis of this class of antiviral compounds, as this methodology is characterised by good specificity and accuracy and it is particularly useful when metabolites need to be monitored. Among chromatographic techniques, the reversed-phase (RP) HPLC is widely used for the analysis. C Silica columns from 7.5 to 18 30 cm in length are used, the separation is carried out mainly at room temperature and less than 10 min is sufficient for the analysis at 1.0–1.5 ml/min of flow-rate. The separation methods require an isocratic system, and various authors have proposed a variety of mobile phases. The detection requires absorbance or fluorescence measurements carried out at 250–254 nm and at l 5260–285 nm, l 5375–380 nm, respectively. The detection limit is about 0.3–10 ng/ml but the ex em most important aspect is related to the sample treatment, mainly when body fluids are under examination. The plasma samples obtained from human blood are pre-treated with an acid or acetonitrile deproteinization and the supernatant after centrifugation is successively extracted before RP-HPLC injection. Capillary Electrophoresis methods are also discussed. This new analytical approach might be the expected evolution, in fact the analyses are improved with regard to time and performance, in particular coated capillary as well as addition of stabilisers have been employed. The time of analysis is shortened arriving at less than half a minute. Furthermore by using an electrochemical detection, and having a calibration linearity in the range of 0.2–20.0 ng/ ml, the detection limit is 0.15 mg/ ml. The measurements of acyclovir and penciclovir have been presented but in the future other related drugs will probably be available using CE methods.

Separation methods for acyclovir and related antiviral compounds

LOREGIAN, ARIANNA;GATTI, ROSALBA;PALU', GIORGIO;DE PALO, ELIO FRANCO
2001

Abstract

Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug, which selectively inhibits replication of members of the herpes group of DNA viruses with low cell toxicity. Valaciclovir (VACV), a prodrug of ACV is usually preferred in the oral treatment of viral infections, mainly herpes simplex virus (HSV). Also other analogues such as ganciclovir and penciclovir are discussed here. The former acts against cytomegalovirus (CMV) in general and the latter against CMV retinitis. The action mechanism of these antiviral drugs is presented briefly here, mainly via phosphorylation and inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase. The therapeutic use and the pharmacokinetics are also outlined. The measurement of the concentration of acyclovir and related compounds in biological samples poses a particularly significant challenge because these drugs tend to be structurally similar to endogenous substances. The analysis requires the use of highly selective analytical techniques and chromatography methods are a first choice to determine drug content in pharmaceuticals and to measure them in body fluids. Chromatography can be considered the procedure of choice for the bio-analysis of this class of antiviral compounds, as this methodology is characterised by good specificity and accuracy and it is particularly useful when metabolites need to be monitored. Among chromatographic techniques, the reversed-phase (RP) HPLC is widely used for the analysis. C Silica columns from 7.5 to 18 30 cm in length are used, the separation is carried out mainly at room temperature and less than 10 min is sufficient for the analysis at 1.0–1.5 ml/min of flow-rate. The separation methods require an isocratic system, and various authors have proposed a variety of mobile phases. The detection requires absorbance or fluorescence measurements carried out at 250–254 nm and at l 5260–285 nm, l 5375–380 nm, respectively. The detection limit is about 0.3–10 ng/ml but the ex em most important aspect is related to the sample treatment, mainly when body fluids are under examination. The plasma samples obtained from human blood are pre-treated with an acid or acetonitrile deproteinization and the supernatant after centrifugation is successively extracted before RP-HPLC injection. Capillary Electrophoresis methods are also discussed. This new analytical approach might be the expected evolution, in fact the analyses are improved with regard to time and performance, in particular coated capillary as well as addition of stabilisers have been employed. The time of analysis is shortened arriving at less than half a minute. Furthermore by using an electrochemical detection, and having a calibration linearity in the range of 0.2–20.0 ng/ ml, the detection limit is 0.15 mg/ ml. The measurements of acyclovir and penciclovir have been presented but in the future other related drugs will probably be available using CE methods.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/2459322
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