The pathway of cell penetration of diphtheria toxin (DT) was studied in Vero cells by following the kinetics of uptake, reduction, degradation, and sub-cellular distribution of 125I-DT in the absence or presence of bafilomycin A1 (baf-A1), a powerful inhibitor of the endosomal H(+)-ATPase. After a lag phase of 4 min, DT, bound to Vero cells, reached an acidic intracellular compartment, where about one-third of it underwent a transition to a state competent for subsequent reduction and membrane translocation. After further 4 min, this DT fraction was reduced in a baf-A1-insensitive reaction and DT-A, the intracellularly active protomer of DT, was immediately released in the cytosol. The present data indicate that cell-mediated reduction of the toxin is the rate-determining step of the DT cell intoxication process. Subcellular fractionation showed that DT underwent the low pH-driven conformational change in an early endosome, distinct from the subsequent endosomal compartment where reduction took place. DT-B remained endosome-bound and was proteolyzed at low pH as well as the portion of DT which was not reduced after the exposure to low pH in early endosomes.

CELL PENETRATION OF DIPHTHERIA-TOXIN - REDUCTION OF THE INTERCHAIN DISULFIDE BRIDGE IS THE RATE-LIMITING STEP OF TRANSLOCATION IN THE CYTOSOL

PAPINI, EMANUELE;MURGIA, MARTA;MONTECUCCO, CESARE
1993

Abstract

The pathway of cell penetration of diphtheria toxin (DT) was studied in Vero cells by following the kinetics of uptake, reduction, degradation, and sub-cellular distribution of 125I-DT in the absence or presence of bafilomycin A1 (baf-A1), a powerful inhibitor of the endosomal H(+)-ATPase. After a lag phase of 4 min, DT, bound to Vero cells, reached an acidic intracellular compartment, where about one-third of it underwent a transition to a state competent for subsequent reduction and membrane translocation. After further 4 min, this DT fraction was reduced in a baf-A1-insensitive reaction and DT-A, the intracellularly active protomer of DT, was immediately released in the cytosol. The present data indicate that cell-mediated reduction of the toxin is the rate-determining step of the DT cell intoxication process. Subcellular fractionation showed that DT underwent the low pH-driven conformational change in an early endosome, distinct from the subsequent endosomal compartment where reduction took place. DT-B remained endosome-bound and was proteolyzed at low pH as well as the portion of DT which was not reduced after the exposure to low pH in early endosomes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/2464104
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