BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of the Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to serogroup O1 and O139 is due to the production of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). The remaining serogroups, which mostly lack CT and TCP, are more frequently isolated from aquatic environmental sources than from clinical samples; nevertheless, these strains have been reported to cause human disease, such as sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhoea and inflammatory enterocolitis. This evidence suggested the possibility that other virulence factor(s) than cholera toxin might be crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea, but their nature remains unknown. VCC, the hemolysin produced by virtually all Vibrio cholerae strains, has been proposed as a possible candidate, though a clear-cut demonstration attesting VCC as crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electrophysiological parameters and paracellular permeability of stripped human healthy colon tissues, obtained at subtotal colectomy, mounted in Ussing chamber were studied in the presence or absence of VCC purified from culture supernatants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain. Short circuit current (I(SC)) and transepithelial resistance (R(T)) were measured by a computerized voltage clamp system. The exposure of sigmoid colon specimens to 1 nM VCC resulted in an increase of I(SC) by 20.7%, with respect to the basal values, while R(T) was reduced by 12.3%. Moreover, increase in I(SC) was abolished by bilateral Cl(-) reduction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that VCC, by forming anion channels on the apical membrane of enterocytes, triggers an outward transcellular flux of chloride. Such an ion movement, associated with the outward movement of Na(+) and water, might be responsible for the diarrhoea caused by the non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae.

The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin promotes chloride secretion from intact human intestinal mucosa.

ARCIDIACONO, DILETTA;FIOROTTO, ROMINA;SPIRLI', CARLO;DE BERNARD, MARINA
2009

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of the Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to serogroup O1 and O139 is due to the production of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). The remaining serogroups, which mostly lack CT and TCP, are more frequently isolated from aquatic environmental sources than from clinical samples; nevertheless, these strains have been reported to cause human disease, such as sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhoea and inflammatory enterocolitis. This evidence suggested the possibility that other virulence factor(s) than cholera toxin might be crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea, but their nature remains unknown. VCC, the hemolysin produced by virtually all Vibrio cholerae strains, has been proposed as a possible candidate, though a clear-cut demonstration attesting VCC as crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electrophysiological parameters and paracellular permeability of stripped human healthy colon tissues, obtained at subtotal colectomy, mounted in Ussing chamber were studied in the presence or absence of VCC purified from culture supernatants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain. Short circuit current (I(SC)) and transepithelial resistance (R(T)) were measured by a computerized voltage clamp system. The exposure of sigmoid colon specimens to 1 nM VCC resulted in an increase of I(SC) by 20.7%, with respect to the basal values, while R(T) was reduced by 12.3%. Moreover, increase in I(SC) was abolished by bilateral Cl(-) reduction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that VCC, by forming anion channels on the apical membrane of enterocytes, triggers an outward transcellular flux of chloride. Such an ion movement, associated with the outward movement of Na(+) and water, might be responsible for the diarrhoea caused by the non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2469114
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