Carnitine, an essential cofactor in fatty acid oxidation, plays a central role in myocardial metabolism. Interpretation of the biochemical features of disturbed myocardial function, particularly in ischemia, may be facilitated by understanding carnitine biosynthesis, transport and function. Biosynthesis: In man, deoxycarnitine, the immediate precursor of carnitine, is synthesized in all tissues, whereas the last step, the conversion of deoxycarnitine into carnitine may only take place in liver, kidney and brain (Figs. 1 and 2). Deoxycarnitine formed by organs like muscle or heart is released into the plasma, taken up by liver and kidney, converted into carnitine which is secreted into the bloodstream to be taken up by heart or muscle (Fig. 2). Carnitine transport and cellular function: The myocardial uptake of carnitine against a large concentration gradient (Table 1) occurs in an 1:1 exchange-diffusion process. Under physiological conditions, intracellular deoxycarnitine is exported and extracellular carnitine is imported. According to this model, myocardial carnitine deficiency may be due either to a functional alteration of the sarcolemmal carnitine carrier or to a deficient synthesis of deoxycarnitine. D-carnitine, acetylcarnitine and long-chain acylcarnitine esters are also transported by the carrier at different rates. This might account for the release of endogenous acylcarnitines accumulated in anoxic or ischemic conditions, contributing to the cardioprotective effect of carnitine by reduction in intracellular long-chain acyl-coenzyme A.

Transport and function of L-carnitine and L-propionylcarnitine: relevance to some cardiomyopathies and cardiac ischemia.

DI LISA, FABIO;MIOTTO, GIOVANNI;
1987

Abstract

Carnitine, an essential cofactor in fatty acid oxidation, plays a central role in myocardial metabolism. Interpretation of the biochemical features of disturbed myocardial function, particularly in ischemia, may be facilitated by understanding carnitine biosynthesis, transport and function. Biosynthesis: In man, deoxycarnitine, the immediate precursor of carnitine, is synthesized in all tissues, whereas the last step, the conversion of deoxycarnitine into carnitine may only take place in liver, kidney and brain (Figs. 1 and 2). Deoxycarnitine formed by organs like muscle or heart is released into the plasma, taken up by liver and kidney, converted into carnitine which is secreted into the bloodstream to be taken up by heart or muscle (Fig. 2). Carnitine transport and cellular function: The myocardial uptake of carnitine against a large concentration gradient (Table 1) occurs in an 1:1 exchange-diffusion process. Under physiological conditions, intracellular deoxycarnitine is exported and extracellular carnitine is imported. According to this model, myocardial carnitine deficiency may be due either to a functional alteration of the sarcolemmal carnitine carrier or to a deficient synthesis of deoxycarnitine. D-carnitine, acetylcarnitine and long-chain acylcarnitine esters are also transported by the carrier at different rates. This might account for the release of endogenous acylcarnitines accumulated in anoxic or ischemic conditions, contributing to the cardioprotective effect of carnitine by reduction in intracellular long-chain acyl-coenzyme A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2488350
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