Cryptochromes are flavoproteins, structurally and evolutionarily related to photolyases, that are involved in the development, magnetoreception, and temporal organization of a variety of organisms. Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (dCRY) is involved in light synchronization of the master circadian clock, and its C terminus plays an important role in modulating light sensitivity and activity of the protein. The activation of dCRY by light requires a conformational change, but it has been suggested that activation could be mediated also by specific “regulators” that bind the C terminus of the protein. This C-terminal region harbors several protein–protein interaction motifs, likely relevant for signal transduction regulation. Here, we show that some functional linear motifs are evolutionarily conserved in the C terminus of cryptochromes and that class III PDZ-binding sites are selectively maintained in animals. A coimmunoprecipitation assay followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed that dCRY interacts with Retinal Degeneration A (RDGA) and with Neither Inactivation Nor Afterpotential C (NINAC) proteins. Both proteins belong to a multiprotein complex (the Signalplex) that includes visual signaling molecules. Using bioinformatic and molecular approaches, dCRY was found to interact with Neither Inactivation Nor Afterpotential C through Inactivation No Afterpotential D (INAD) in a light-dependent manner and that the CRY–Inactivation No Afterpotential D interaction is mediated by specific domains of the two proteins and involves the CRY C terminus. Moreover, an impairment of the visual behavior was observed in fly mutants for dCRY, indicative of a role, direct or indirect, for this photoreceptor in fly vision.

Fly cryptochrome and the visual system.

MAZZOTTA, GABRIELLA MARGHERITA;LEONARDI, EMANUELA;SPOLAORE, BARBARA;MARTIN MARTIN, ALBERTO JESUS;MAMMI, STEFANO;COSTA, RODOLFO;TOSATTO, SILVIO
2013

Abstract

Cryptochromes are flavoproteins, structurally and evolutionarily related to photolyases, that are involved in the development, magnetoreception, and temporal organization of a variety of organisms. Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (dCRY) is involved in light synchronization of the master circadian clock, and its C terminus plays an important role in modulating light sensitivity and activity of the protein. The activation of dCRY by light requires a conformational change, but it has been suggested that activation could be mediated also by specific “regulators” that bind the C terminus of the protein. This C-terminal region harbors several protein–protein interaction motifs, likely relevant for signal transduction regulation. Here, we show that some functional linear motifs are evolutionarily conserved in the C terminus of cryptochromes and that class III PDZ-binding sites are selectively maintained in animals. A coimmunoprecipitation assay followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed that dCRY interacts with Retinal Degeneration A (RDGA) and with Neither Inactivation Nor Afterpotential C (NINAC) proteins. Both proteins belong to a multiprotein complex (the Signalplex) that includes visual signaling molecules. Using bioinformatic and molecular approaches, dCRY was found to interact with Neither Inactivation Nor Afterpotential C through Inactivation No Afterpotential D (INAD) in a light-dependent manner and that the CRY–Inactivation No Afterpotential D interaction is mediated by specific domains of the two proteins and involves the CRY C terminus. Moreover, an impairment of the visual behavior was observed in fly mutants for dCRY, indicative of a role, direct or indirect, for this photoreceptor in fly vision.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2573187
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