The existence of a gamma-glutamyl cycle consisting of intracellular GSH synthesis, extrusion to the apoplastic space and recovery by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)-assisted degradation into its constituent amino acids, has been demonstrated in plants. To address the significance of this cycle in plant cells, we performed integrated biochemical, immunocytochemical, and quantitative proteomics analyses in the Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 knockout mutant (lacking apoplastic GGT1 isoform) and its corresponding wild-type (WT). The ggt1 knockout leaves exhibited an increased ascorbate and GSH content, increased apoplastic GSH content, and enhanced protein carbonylations in the low-molecular-weight range compared to WT. The combined iTRAQ and LC-MS/MS based quantitative proteomics approach identified 70 proteins (out of 1,013 identified proteins) whose abundance was significantly different in leaves of ggt1 mutant compared to WT, with a fold change ≥1.5. Mining of the proteome data for GSH-associated genes showed that disruption of gamma-glutamyl cycle in ggt1 knockout-leaves was associated with the induction of genes encoding four GSTs in the phi class (GSTF2, GSTF6, GSTF9, and GSTF10), a GSH peroxidase (GPX1), and glyoxylase II. Proteins with a lower abundance compared to the WT are involved in chloroplast functions, carbohydrate/maltose metabolism and vegetative storage protein synthesis. Present findings suggest that GGT1 plays a role in redox signaling. The disruption of the gamma-glutamyl cycle in the ggt1 mutant results in pleiotropic effects related to biotic and abiotic stress response, antioxidant metabolism, senescence, carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis, with strong implications for plant's adaptation to environment.

Biochemical and quantitative proteomics investigations in Arabidopsis ggt1mutant leaves reveal a role for the gamma-glutamyl cycle in plant's adaptation to environment

TOLIN, SERENA;ARRIGONI, GIORGIO;TRENTIN, ANNA RITA;PIVATO, MICAELA;MASI, ANTONIO
2013

Abstract

The existence of a gamma-glutamyl cycle consisting of intracellular GSH synthesis, extrusion to the apoplastic space and recovery by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)-assisted degradation into its constituent amino acids, has been demonstrated in plants. To address the significance of this cycle in plant cells, we performed integrated biochemical, immunocytochemical, and quantitative proteomics analyses in the Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 knockout mutant (lacking apoplastic GGT1 isoform) and its corresponding wild-type (WT). The ggt1 knockout leaves exhibited an increased ascorbate and GSH content, increased apoplastic GSH content, and enhanced protein carbonylations in the low-molecular-weight range compared to WT. The combined iTRAQ and LC-MS/MS based quantitative proteomics approach identified 70 proteins (out of 1,013 identified proteins) whose abundance was significantly different in leaves of ggt1 mutant compared to WT, with a fold change ≥1.5. Mining of the proteome data for GSH-associated genes showed that disruption of gamma-glutamyl cycle in ggt1 knockout-leaves was associated with the induction of genes encoding four GSTs in the phi class (GSTF2, GSTF6, GSTF9, and GSTF10), a GSH peroxidase (GPX1), and glyoxylase II. Proteins with a lower abundance compared to the WT are involved in chloroplast functions, carbohydrate/maltose metabolism and vegetative storage protein synthesis. Present findings suggest that GGT1 plays a role in redox signaling. The disruption of the gamma-glutamyl cycle in the ggt1 mutant results in pleiotropic effects related to biotic and abiotic stress response, antioxidant metabolism, senescence, carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis, with strong implications for plant's adaptation to environment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2577701
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