This article is the first in a series of papers, describing reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) in the presence of metallic copper. The aim of these papers is to determine the proportions and roles of Cu0, CuIBr/L, and CuIIBr2/L, and the overall reaction mechanism. This paper is focused on the comproportionation and disproportionation equilibrium between Cu0, CuIBr/L and CuIIBr2/L in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for various surface areas of Cu0 and different ligand concentrations, in both the absence and presence of methyl acrylate (MA). Comproportionation dominated disproportionation when there was enough ligand present in the reaction medium to stabilize all soluble copper species. The relative amount of CuI at comproportionation/disproportionation equilibrium increased with ligand concentration. CuI represents approximately 99.95% of all soluble Cu species in MA/DMSO = 2/1 (v/v) at the ratio [Me6TREN]0:[CuIIBr2]0 = 6:1. Under typical polymerization conditions, there is essentially no disproportionation, since the ratio [Me6TREN]:[CuII] is very large, starting from infinity and decreasing down to 6.7, for ∼3% terminated chains under the initial conditions [MA]0:[MBrP]0:[Me6TREN]0 = 222:1:0.1, in 33.3% (v/v) DMSO, with excess Cu0. The kinetics of comproportionation and disproportionation were both slow, requiring hours to reach equilibrium. The apparent rate coefficients for comproportionation and disproportionation were calculated as kcomp app = 9.0 × 10−4 cm s−1 and kdisp app = 2.0 × 10−5 cm s−1 in DMSO, as well as 3.5 × 10−3 cm s−1 and 3.1 × 10−6 cm s−1 in MA/DMSO = 2/1 (v/v), respectively. The results of this study invalidate the assumption of instantaneous and complete disproportionation, proposed in single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP). These findings agree with Cu0 acting as a supplemental activator and reducing agent in atom transfer radical polymerization (SARA ATRP).

Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization in the Presence of Metallic Copper. Comproportionation–Disproportionation Equilibria and Kinetics

BORTOLAMEI, NICOLA;AHMED ISSE, ABDIRISAK;GENNARO, ARMANDO;
2013

Abstract

This article is the first in a series of papers, describing reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) in the presence of metallic copper. The aim of these papers is to determine the proportions and roles of Cu0, CuIBr/L, and CuIIBr2/L, and the overall reaction mechanism. This paper is focused on the comproportionation and disproportionation equilibrium between Cu0, CuIBr/L and CuIIBr2/L in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for various surface areas of Cu0 and different ligand concentrations, in both the absence and presence of methyl acrylate (MA). Comproportionation dominated disproportionation when there was enough ligand present in the reaction medium to stabilize all soluble copper species. The relative amount of CuI at comproportionation/disproportionation equilibrium increased with ligand concentration. CuI represents approximately 99.95% of all soluble Cu species in MA/DMSO = 2/1 (v/v) at the ratio [Me6TREN]0:[CuIIBr2]0 = 6:1. Under typical polymerization conditions, there is essentially no disproportionation, since the ratio [Me6TREN]:[CuII] is very large, starting from infinity and decreasing down to 6.7, for ∼3% terminated chains under the initial conditions [MA]0:[MBrP]0:[Me6TREN]0 = 222:1:0.1, in 33.3% (v/v) DMSO, with excess Cu0. The kinetics of comproportionation and disproportionation were both slow, requiring hours to reach equilibrium. The apparent rate coefficients for comproportionation and disproportionation were calculated as kcomp app = 9.0 × 10−4 cm s−1 and kdisp app = 2.0 × 10−5 cm s−1 in DMSO, as well as 3.5 × 10−3 cm s−1 and 3.1 × 10−6 cm s−1 in MA/DMSO = 2/1 (v/v), respectively. The results of this study invalidate the assumption of instantaneous and complete disproportionation, proposed in single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP). These findings agree with Cu0 acting as a supplemental activator and reducing agent in atom transfer radical polymerization (SARA ATRP).
2013
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2611045
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