OBJECTIVE: Addison's disease (AD) is a rare endocrine condition. DESIGN: We aimed to evaluate clinical, immunologic, adrenal imaging, and genetic features in 633 Italian patients with AD followed up since 1967. METHODS: Adrenal cortex autoantibodies, presence of other autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, nonadrenal autoantibodies, adrenal imaging, and genetic profile for HLA-DRB1 and AIRE were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 492 (77.7%) patients were found to be affected by autoimmune AD (A-AD), 57 (9%) tuberculous AD, 29 (4.6%) genetic-associated AD, 10 (1.6%) adrenal cancer, six (0.94%) post-surgical AD, four (0.6%) vascular disorder-related AD, three (0.5%) post-infectious AD, and 32 (5.1%) were defined as idiopathic. Adrenal cortex antibodies were detected in the vast majority (88100%) of patients with recent onset A-AD, but in none of those with nonautoimmune AD. Adrenal imaging revealed normal/atrophic glands in all A-AD patients: 88% of patients with A-AD had other clinical or subclinical autoimmune diseases or were positive for nonadrenal autoantibodies. Based on the coexistence of other autoimmune disorders, 65.6% of patients with A-AD were found to have type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS2), 14.4% have APS1, and 8.5% have APS4. Class II HLA alleles DRB1*03 and DRB1*04 were increased, and DRB1*01, DRB1*07, DRB1*013 were reduced in APS2 patients when compared with controls. Of the patients with APS1, 96% were revealed to have AIRE gene mutations. CONCLUSIONS: A-AD is the most prevalent form of adrenal insufficiency in Italy, and ∼90% of the patients are adrenal autoantibody-positive at the onset. Assessment of patients with A-AD for the presence of other autoimmune diseases should be helpful in monitoring and diagnosing APS types 1, 2, or 4 and improving patients' care.

Addison's disease: a survey on 633 patients in Padova.

BETTERLE, CORRADO;GARELLI, SILVIA;BAROLLO, SUSI;BASSO, DANIELA;MANTERO, FRANCO
2013

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Addison's disease (AD) is a rare endocrine condition. DESIGN: We aimed to evaluate clinical, immunologic, adrenal imaging, and genetic features in 633 Italian patients with AD followed up since 1967. METHODS: Adrenal cortex autoantibodies, presence of other autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, nonadrenal autoantibodies, adrenal imaging, and genetic profile for HLA-DRB1 and AIRE were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 492 (77.7%) patients were found to be affected by autoimmune AD (A-AD), 57 (9%) tuberculous AD, 29 (4.6%) genetic-associated AD, 10 (1.6%) adrenal cancer, six (0.94%) post-surgical AD, four (0.6%) vascular disorder-related AD, three (0.5%) post-infectious AD, and 32 (5.1%) were defined as idiopathic. Adrenal cortex antibodies were detected in the vast majority (88100%) of patients with recent onset A-AD, but in none of those with nonautoimmune AD. Adrenal imaging revealed normal/atrophic glands in all A-AD patients: 88% of patients with A-AD had other clinical or subclinical autoimmune diseases or were positive for nonadrenal autoantibodies. Based on the coexistence of other autoimmune disorders, 65.6% of patients with A-AD were found to have type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS2), 14.4% have APS1, and 8.5% have APS4. Class II HLA alleles DRB1*03 and DRB1*04 were increased, and DRB1*01, DRB1*07, DRB1*013 were reduced in APS2 patients when compared with controls. Of the patients with APS1, 96% were revealed to have AIRE gene mutations. CONCLUSIONS: A-AD is the most prevalent form of adrenal insufficiency in Italy, and ∼90% of the patients are adrenal autoantibody-positive at the onset. Assessment of patients with A-AD for the presence of other autoimmune diseases should be helpful in monitoring and diagnosing APS types 1, 2, or 4 and improving patients' care.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/2719879
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