Avidin conjugates have several important applications in biotechnology and medicine. In this work, we investigated the possibility to produce site-specific derivatives of avidin using microbial transglutaminase (TGase). TGase allows the modification of proteins at the level of Gln or Lys residues using as substrate an alkyl-amine or a Gln-mimicking moiety, respectively. The reaction is site-specific, since Gln and Lys derivatization occurs preferentially at residues embedded in flexible regions of protein substrates. An analysis of the X-ray structure of avidin allowed us to predict Gln126 and Lys127 as potential sites of TGase's attack, because these residues are located in the flexible/unfolded C-terminal region of the protein. Surprisingly, incubation of avidin with TGase in the presence of alkylamine containing substrates (dansylcadaverine, 5-hydroxytryptamine) revealed a very low level of derivatization of the Gln126 residue. Analysis of the TGase reaction on synthetic peptide analogues of the C-terminal portion of avidin indicated that the lack of reactivity of Gln126 was likely due to the fact that this residue is proximal to negatively charged carboxylate groups, thus hampering the interaction of the substrate at the negatively charged active site of TGase. On the other hand, incubation of avidin with TGase in the presence of carbobenzoxy-l-glutaminyl-glycine in order to derivatize Lys residue(s) resulted in a clean and high yield production of an avidin derivative, retaining the biotin binding properties and the quaternary structure of the native protein. Proteolytic digestion of the modified protein, followed by mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify Lys127 as the major site of reaction, together with a minor modification of Lys58. By using TGase, avidin was also conjugated via a Lys-Gln isopeptide bond to a protein containing a single reactive Gln residue, namely, Gln126 of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. TGase can thus be exploited for the site-specific derivatization of avidin with small molecules or proteins.

Site-Specific Derivatization of Avidin Using Microbial Transglutaminase

SPOLAORE, BARBARA;DAMIANO, NUNZIO;RABONI, SAMANTA;
2014

Abstract

Avidin conjugates have several important applications in biotechnology and medicine. In this work, we investigated the possibility to produce site-specific derivatives of avidin using microbial transglutaminase (TGase). TGase allows the modification of proteins at the level of Gln or Lys residues using as substrate an alkyl-amine or a Gln-mimicking moiety, respectively. The reaction is site-specific, since Gln and Lys derivatization occurs preferentially at residues embedded in flexible regions of protein substrates. An analysis of the X-ray structure of avidin allowed us to predict Gln126 and Lys127 as potential sites of TGase's attack, because these residues are located in the flexible/unfolded C-terminal region of the protein. Surprisingly, incubation of avidin with TGase in the presence of alkylamine containing substrates (dansylcadaverine, 5-hydroxytryptamine) revealed a very low level of derivatization of the Gln126 residue. Analysis of the TGase reaction on synthetic peptide analogues of the C-terminal portion of avidin indicated that the lack of reactivity of Gln126 was likely due to the fact that this residue is proximal to negatively charged carboxylate groups, thus hampering the interaction of the substrate at the negatively charged active site of TGase. On the other hand, incubation of avidin with TGase in the presence of carbobenzoxy-l-glutaminyl-glycine in order to derivatize Lys residue(s) resulted in a clean and high yield production of an avidin derivative, retaining the biotin binding properties and the quaternary structure of the native protein. Proteolytic digestion of the modified protein, followed by mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify Lys127 as the major site of reaction, together with a minor modification of Lys58. By using TGase, avidin was also conjugated via a Lys-Gln isopeptide bond to a protein containing a single reactive Gln residue, namely, Gln126 of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. TGase can thus be exploited for the site-specific derivatization of avidin with small molecules or proteins.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2836739
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