Introduction: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is given for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. OAC’s most serious complications are major bleeding and, in particular, hemorrhagic stroke. Together with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are now available which have a more rapid onset/offset of action and more predictable anticoagulant effect. The advent of DOAC has given to the clinician an opportunity to tailor OAC therapy in order to maximize advantages and minimize complications. Areas covered: This review covers data published in literature regarding the risk of hemorrhagic stroke in patients taking OAC. Bleeding risk assessment is discussed and different bleeding risk factors are presented. The paper will also review clinical studies comparing DOAC against standard anticoagulation, in regard to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Expert opinion: Bleeding assessment is mandatory in order to select patients at high hemorrhagic risk who will benefit the most from close monitoring. Blood pressure, alcohol intake, concomitant medication and comorbidities should be constantly evaluated and treated accordingly. During VKA therapy, adherence and intensity of anticoagulation must be strictly monitored. DOAC are associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke than VKA. However, periodic hepatic and renal checks as well as careful evaluation of time adherence are necessary to reduce the risk of bleeding.

Minimizing the risk of hemorrhagic stroke during anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation

ZOPPELLARO, GIACOMO;GRANZIERA, SERENA;PADAYATTIL JOSE, SEENA;DENAS, GENTIAN;BRACCO, ALESSIA;ILICETO, SABINO;PENGO, VITTORIO
2015

Abstract

Introduction: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is given for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. OAC’s most serious complications are major bleeding and, in particular, hemorrhagic stroke. Together with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are now available which have a more rapid onset/offset of action and more predictable anticoagulant effect. The advent of DOAC has given to the clinician an opportunity to tailor OAC therapy in order to maximize advantages and minimize complications. Areas covered: This review covers data published in literature regarding the risk of hemorrhagic stroke in patients taking OAC. Bleeding risk assessment is discussed and different bleeding risk factors are presented. The paper will also review clinical studies comparing DOAC against standard anticoagulation, in regard to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Expert opinion: Bleeding assessment is mandatory in order to select patients at high hemorrhagic risk who will benefit the most from close monitoring. Blood pressure, alcohol intake, concomitant medication and comorbidities should be constantly evaluated and treated accordingly. During VKA therapy, adherence and intensity of anticoagulation must be strictly monitored. DOAC are associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke than VKA. However, periodic hepatic and renal checks as well as careful evaluation of time adherence are necessary to reduce the risk of bleeding.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3156352
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