Background: Mice lacking calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1-null), a Ca2+-binding protein that modulates the activity of Ca2+ release in the skeletal muscle, exhibit lethal hypermetabolic episodes that resemble malignant hyperthermia in humans when exposed to halothane or heat stress.Methods: Because oxidative species may play a critical role in malignant hyperthermia crises, we treated CASQ1-null mice with two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, Sigma-Aldrich, Italy; provided ad libitum in drinking water) and ()-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, Sigma-Aldrich; administered by intraperitoneal injection), before exposure to halothane (2%, 1 h) or heat (41 degrees C, 1 h).Results: NAC and Trolox significantly protected CASQ1-null mice from lethal episodes, with mortality being 79% (n = 14), 25% (n = 16), and 20% (n = 5) during halothane exposure and 86% (n = 21), 29% (n = 21), and 33% (n = 6) during heat stress in untreated, NAC-treated, and Trolox-treated mice, respectively. During heat challenge, an increase in core temperature in CASQ1-null mice (42.3 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C, n=10) was significantly reduced by both NAC and Trolox (40.6 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees C, n = 6 and 40.5 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees C, n = 6). NAC treatment of CASQ1-null muscles/mice normalized caffeine sensitivity during in vitro contracture tests, Ca2+ transients in single fibers, and significantly reduced the percentage of fibers undergoing rhabdomyolysis (37.6 +/- 2.5%, 38/101 fibers in 3 mice; 11.6 +/- 1.1%, 21/186 fibers in 5 mice). The protective effect of antioxidant treatment likely resulted from mitigation of oxidative stress, because NAC reduced mitochondrial superoxide production, superoxide dismutase type-1 expression, and 3-nitrotyrosine expression, and increased both reduced glutathione and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio.Conclusion: These studies provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hyperthermic crises in CASQ1-deficient muscle and demonstrate that antioxidant pretreatment may prevent them.

Antioxidants Protect Calsequestrin-1 Knockout Mice from Halothane- and Heat-induced Sudden Death

CANATO, MARTA;REGGIANI, CARLO;
2015

Abstract

Background: Mice lacking calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1-null), a Ca2+-binding protein that modulates the activity of Ca2+ release in the skeletal muscle, exhibit lethal hypermetabolic episodes that resemble malignant hyperthermia in humans when exposed to halothane or heat stress.Methods: Because oxidative species may play a critical role in malignant hyperthermia crises, we treated CASQ1-null mice with two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, Sigma-Aldrich, Italy; provided ad libitum in drinking water) and ()-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, Sigma-Aldrich; administered by intraperitoneal injection), before exposure to halothane (2%, 1 h) or heat (41 degrees C, 1 h).Results: NAC and Trolox significantly protected CASQ1-null mice from lethal episodes, with mortality being 79% (n = 14), 25% (n = 16), and 20% (n = 5) during halothane exposure and 86% (n = 21), 29% (n = 21), and 33% (n = 6) during heat stress in untreated, NAC-treated, and Trolox-treated mice, respectively. During heat challenge, an increase in core temperature in CASQ1-null mice (42.3 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C, n=10) was significantly reduced by both NAC and Trolox (40.6 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees C, n = 6 and 40.5 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees C, n = 6). NAC treatment of CASQ1-null muscles/mice normalized caffeine sensitivity during in vitro contracture tests, Ca2+ transients in single fibers, and significantly reduced the percentage of fibers undergoing rhabdomyolysis (37.6 +/- 2.5%, 38/101 fibers in 3 mice; 11.6 +/- 1.1%, 21/186 fibers in 5 mice). The protective effect of antioxidant treatment likely resulted from mitigation of oxidative stress, because NAC reduced mitochondrial superoxide production, superoxide dismutase type-1 expression, and 3-nitrotyrosine expression, and increased both reduced glutathione and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio.Conclusion: These studies provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hyperthermic crises in CASQ1-deficient muscle and demonstrate that antioxidant pretreatment may prevent them.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3169212
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