The geomorphological study of alluvial plains takes great advantage from the integration of detailed altimetry with high-resolution images, especially in the lower-relief sectors, like those in the distal plain of the Brenta and Bacchiglione rivers near the city of Padua (mean slope 1-0.8‰). The LiDAR data which were specifically acquired for this research (Riegl LMS-Q560, mean density 7 points/m2, overall area 123 km2), were classified and interpolated in order to map fluvial and anthropogenic landforms. The acquisition was carried out in a moment of minimal vegetation luxuriance (March 2011), in order to minimize ground cover. The DEM (z accuracy <5-10 cm) was processed and analyzed in integration with high resolution oblique and vertical, multispectral (VIS + IR) and panchromatic aerial images. These latter were acquired during the summer crop season, with the aim of maximizing the detection of vegetation response to different soils, sediments and landforms (cropmarks). A detailed field survey was conducted with soil observation, hand augerings and description of stratigraphic sections in pits, in order to validate the remote sensing interpretations. The detailed topography allowed the identification and mapping of low rise interfluves and scarps (<1-2 m), paleochannels, scroll bars and crevasse splays. The reconstruction of a precise "ground" surface in the narrow medieval streets detailed the morphology of the multi-stratified archeological mound in the historical center of Padua. The remote sensing of cropmarks is the most appropriate method to complete the mapping of the numerous fluvial forms that have little or no topographic expression being too small (i.e. minor crevasse channels and splays) and/or flattened by anthropogenic activity (mainly plowing). LiDAR intensity permitted a precise mapping of LGM deposits that have shown peculiar reflectivity related to specific soil characteristics (i.e., presence of calcic horizons in well-drained, elevated position). High resolution images and LiDAR DEM allow the analysis of this largely anthropized low-plain environment at cell-size scale of 0.5-1 m, i.e. approximating the original complexity of the alluvial sedimentary environment. The results bring advances in the comprehension of the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene evolution of the Brenta-Bacchiglione plain. The large-scale mapping of paleohydrographic features led to the recognition of different fluvial styles adopted by the Brenta River: i) braided to wandering paleochannels, 100-300 m wide, in fine-sediment dominated fluvioglacial LGM distal alluvial plain, ii) meandering (up to ~3.5) single channels, 50-100 m wide, with evidence of lateral migration in early and middle Holocene channel belts, and iii) low to medium sinuosity (~1.15-1.5) single channels with vertical aggradation, associated with ridges and widespread crevasse channels and splays during the middle Holocene. The derived maps provide significant support to land and urban planning, e.g., in the definition of appropriate geotechnical analysis, the estimation of buried archeological deposits in the city center, and the assessment of flooding hazard.

Integration of LiDAR and cropmark remote sensing for the study of fluvial and anthropogenic landforms in the Brenta-Bacchiglione alluvial plain (NE Italy)

NINFO, ANDREA;MOZZI, PAOLO;ABBA', TIZIANO
2016

Abstract

The geomorphological study of alluvial plains takes great advantage from the integration of detailed altimetry with high-resolution images, especially in the lower-relief sectors, like those in the distal plain of the Brenta and Bacchiglione rivers near the city of Padua (mean slope 1-0.8‰). The LiDAR data which were specifically acquired for this research (Riegl LMS-Q560, mean density 7 points/m2, overall area 123 km2), were classified and interpolated in order to map fluvial and anthropogenic landforms. The acquisition was carried out in a moment of minimal vegetation luxuriance (March 2011), in order to minimize ground cover. The DEM (z accuracy <5-10 cm) was processed and analyzed in integration with high resolution oblique and vertical, multispectral (VIS + IR) and panchromatic aerial images. These latter were acquired during the summer crop season, with the aim of maximizing the detection of vegetation response to different soils, sediments and landforms (cropmarks). A detailed field survey was conducted with soil observation, hand augerings and description of stratigraphic sections in pits, in order to validate the remote sensing interpretations. The detailed topography allowed the identification and mapping of low rise interfluves and scarps (<1-2 m), paleochannels, scroll bars and crevasse splays. The reconstruction of a precise "ground" surface in the narrow medieval streets detailed the morphology of the multi-stratified archeological mound in the historical center of Padua. The remote sensing of cropmarks is the most appropriate method to complete the mapping of the numerous fluvial forms that have little or no topographic expression being too small (i.e. minor crevasse channels and splays) and/or flattened by anthropogenic activity (mainly plowing). LiDAR intensity permitted a precise mapping of LGM deposits that have shown peculiar reflectivity related to specific soil characteristics (i.e., presence of calcic horizons in well-drained, elevated position). High resolution images and LiDAR DEM allow the analysis of this largely anthropized low-plain environment at cell-size scale of 0.5-1 m, i.e. approximating the original complexity of the alluvial sedimentary environment. The results bring advances in the comprehension of the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene evolution of the Brenta-Bacchiglione plain. The large-scale mapping of paleohydrographic features led to the recognition of different fluvial styles adopted by the Brenta River: i) braided to wandering paleochannels, 100-300 m wide, in fine-sediment dominated fluvioglacial LGM distal alluvial plain, ii) meandering (up to ~3.5) single channels, 50-100 m wide, with evidence of lateral migration in early and middle Holocene channel belts, and iii) low to medium sinuosity (~1.15-1.5) single channels with vertical aggradation, associated with ridges and widespread crevasse channels and splays during the middle Holocene. The derived maps provide significant support to land and urban planning, e.g., in the definition of appropriate geotechnical analysis, the estimation of buried archeological deposits in the city center, and the assessment of flooding hazard.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3169621
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