Soil management in vineyard inter-rows has a great influence on soil hydraulic conductivity and bulk density, and, consequently, on runoff and soil erosion processes at the field scale. The maintenance of bare soil in vineyard inter-rows with tillage, as well as the tractor traffic, are known to expose the soil to compaction, reduction of soil water holding capacity and increase of runoff and erosion. The use of grass cover is one of the most common and effective practices in order to reduce such threats. It is therefore important to relate rainfall characteristics, soil properties and response in terms of runoff and soil erosion, from yearly to seasonal and to single event temporal scales. The objective of this work is to quantify the temporal variability of the effects of two different kind of inter-row management on soil hydrological properties, runoff and erosion in vineyards. For this reason two vineyard field-scale plots in the Alto Monferrato vine-growing area (Piedmont, NW Italy) were monitored in two years. The inter-rows were managed with conventional tillage (CT) and grass cover (GC), respectively. Fifteen series of infiltration tests were carried out during a 2-year period of observation (October 2012 to November 2014). In order to take into account the effect of tractors traffic, the tests were done on the track, and outside the track. Furthermore, a dataset of 29 rainfall-runoff events covering a wide range of topsoil characteristics was collected in the two plots, along with soil water content and runoff discharge monitoring, and determination of sediment yield in case of erosive events. An optical disdrometer installed in the plots provided also 1-min rainfall intensity data. In summer, just one month after tillage, CT soil showed very low hydraulic conductivity, so storms were able to cause Hortonian runoff and soil losses up to 5.7 Mg ha1. In autumn and winter very high saturation-excess runoff was observed in CT, that reached 83% of the precipitation. Runoff in the grass cover plot was mainly due to saturation of the topsoil, and the annual reduction of runoff in the GC plot was about 63%. Soil erosion up to 1.2 Mg ha1 in a single event was observed in the GC vineyard in winter. In each year of observation, most of the erosion occurred during a single event, while the total annual erosion was up to 9 times higher in the CT treatment than in the GC.

Temporal variability of soil management effects on soil hydrological properties, runoff and erosion at the field scale in a hillslope vineyard, North-West Italy

PITACCO, ANDREA;
2017

Abstract

Soil management in vineyard inter-rows has a great influence on soil hydraulic conductivity and bulk density, and, consequently, on runoff and soil erosion processes at the field scale. The maintenance of bare soil in vineyard inter-rows with tillage, as well as the tractor traffic, are known to expose the soil to compaction, reduction of soil water holding capacity and increase of runoff and erosion. The use of grass cover is one of the most common and effective practices in order to reduce such threats. It is therefore important to relate rainfall characteristics, soil properties and response in terms of runoff and soil erosion, from yearly to seasonal and to single event temporal scales. The objective of this work is to quantify the temporal variability of the effects of two different kind of inter-row management on soil hydrological properties, runoff and erosion in vineyards. For this reason two vineyard field-scale plots in the Alto Monferrato vine-growing area (Piedmont, NW Italy) were monitored in two years. The inter-rows were managed with conventional tillage (CT) and grass cover (GC), respectively. Fifteen series of infiltration tests were carried out during a 2-year period of observation (October 2012 to November 2014). In order to take into account the effect of tractors traffic, the tests were done on the track, and outside the track. Furthermore, a dataset of 29 rainfall-runoff events covering a wide range of topsoil characteristics was collected in the two plots, along with soil water content and runoff discharge monitoring, and determination of sediment yield in case of erosive events. An optical disdrometer installed in the plots provided also 1-min rainfall intensity data. In summer, just one month after tillage, CT soil showed very low hydraulic conductivity, so storms were able to cause Hortonian runoff and soil losses up to 5.7 Mg ha1. In autumn and winter very high saturation-excess runoff was observed in CT, that reached 83% of the precipitation. Runoff in the grass cover plot was mainly due to saturation of the topsoil, and the annual reduction of runoff in the GC plot was about 63%. Soil erosion up to 1.2 Mg ha1 in a single event was observed in the GC vineyard in winter. In each year of observation, most of the erosion occurred during a single event, while the total annual erosion was up to 9 times higher in the CT treatment than in the GC.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3195556
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 93
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 82
social impact