The mobility and distribution of metals in the environment is related not only to their concentration but also to their availability in the environment. Most chromium (Cr) exists in oxidation states ranging from 0 to VI in soils but the most stable and common forms are Cr(0), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) species. Chromium can have positive and negative effects on health, according to the dose, exposure time, and its oxidation state. The last is highly soluble; mobile; and toxic to humans, animals, and plants. On the contrary, Cr(III) has relatively low toxicity and mobility and it is one of the micronutrients needed by humans. In addition, Cr(III) can be absorbed on the surface of clay minerals in precipitates or complexes. Thus, the approaches converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in soils and waters have received considerable attention. The Cr(III) compounds are sparingly soluble in water and may be found in water bodies as soluble Cr(III) complexes, while the Cr(VI) compounds are readily soluble in water. Chromium is absorbed by plants through carriers of essential ions such as sulfate. Chromium uptake, accumulation, and translocation, depend on its speciation. Chromium shortage can cause cardiac problems, metabolic dysfunctions, and diabetes. Symptoms of Cr toxicity in plants comprise decrease of germination, reduction of growth, inhibition of enzymatic activities, impairment of photosynthesis and oxidative imbalances. This review provides an overview of the chemical characteristics of Cr, its behavior in the environment, the relationships with plants and aspects of the use of fertilizers. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Chromium in Agricultural Soils and Crops: A Review

ERTANI, ANDREA;BORIN, MAURIZIO;NARDI, SERENELLA
2017

Abstract

The mobility and distribution of metals in the environment is related not only to their concentration but also to their availability in the environment. Most chromium (Cr) exists in oxidation states ranging from 0 to VI in soils but the most stable and common forms are Cr(0), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) species. Chromium can have positive and negative effects on health, according to the dose, exposure time, and its oxidation state. The last is highly soluble; mobile; and toxic to humans, animals, and plants. On the contrary, Cr(III) has relatively low toxicity and mobility and it is one of the micronutrients needed by humans. In addition, Cr(III) can be absorbed on the surface of clay minerals in precipitates or complexes. Thus, the approaches converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in soils and waters have received considerable attention. The Cr(III) compounds are sparingly soluble in water and may be found in water bodies as soluble Cr(III) complexes, while the Cr(VI) compounds are readily soluble in water. Chromium is absorbed by plants through carriers of essential ions such as sulfate. Chromium uptake, accumulation, and translocation, depend on its speciation. Chromium shortage can cause cardiac problems, metabolic dysfunctions, and diabetes. Symptoms of Cr toxicity in plants comprise decrease of germination, reduction of growth, inhibition of enzymatic activities, impairment of photosynthesis and oxidative imbalances. This review provides an overview of the chemical characteristics of Cr, its behavior in the environment, the relationships with plants and aspects of the use of fertilizers. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3230474
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