The increase in the number of remote sensing platforms, ranging from satellites to close-range Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS), is leading to a growing demand for new image processing and classification tools. This article presents a comparison of the Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine-learning algorithms for extracting land-use classes in RPAS-derived orthomosaic using open source R packages. The camera used in this work captures the reflectance of the Red, Blue, Green and Near Infrared channels of a target. The full dataset is therefore a 4-channel raster image. The classification performance of the two methods is tested at varying sizes of training sets. The SVM and RF are evaluated using Kappa index, classification accuracy and classification error as accuracy metrics. The training sets are randomly obtained as subset of 2 to 20% of the total number of raster cells, with stratified sampling according to the land-use classes. Ten runs are done for each training set to calculate the variance in results. The control dataset consists of an independent classification obtained by photointerpretation. The validation is carried out(i) using the K-Fold cross validation, (ii) using the pixels from the validation test set, and (iii) using the pixels from the full test set. Validation with K-fold and with the validation dataset show SVM give better results, but RF prove to be more performing when training size is larger. Classification error and classification accuracy follow the trend of Kappa index.

Open source R for applying machine learning to RPAS remote sensing images

PIRAGNOLO, MARCO;MASIERO, ANDREA;PIROTTI, FRANCESCO
2017

Abstract

The increase in the number of remote sensing platforms, ranging from satellites to close-range Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS), is leading to a growing demand for new image processing and classification tools. This article presents a comparison of the Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine-learning algorithms for extracting land-use classes in RPAS-derived orthomosaic using open source R packages. The camera used in this work captures the reflectance of the Red, Blue, Green and Near Infrared channels of a target. The full dataset is therefore a 4-channel raster image. The classification performance of the two methods is tested at varying sizes of training sets. The SVM and RF are evaluated using Kappa index, classification accuracy and classification error as accuracy metrics. The training sets are randomly obtained as subset of 2 to 20% of the total number of raster cells, with stratified sampling according to the land-use classes. Ten runs are done for each training set to calculate the variance in results. The control dataset consists of an independent classification obtained by photointerpretation. The validation is carried out(i) using the K-Fold cross validation, (ii) using the pixels from the validation test set, and (iii) using the pixels from the full test set. Validation with K-fold and with the validation dataset show SVM give better results, but RF prove to be more performing when training size is larger. Classification error and classification accuracy follow the trend of Kappa index.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3240392
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