Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule. We examined literature data including those coming from our group regarding the role of oxidative stress and sodium retention in CNIs induced hypertension and their involvement in cardiovascular-renal remodeling. Based on the available data, we have provided support to the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway as an important effector in the pathophysiology of CNIs induced post-transplant hypertension via activation of oxidative stress and sodium retention. Clarification of how the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that regulate the processes involved in CNIs induced post transplant hypertension work and interact, would provide further insights not only into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of CNIs induced post transplant hypertension but could also have a positive impact on the clinical ground through the identification of significant targets. Their specific pharmacologic targeting might have multiple beneficial effects on the whole cardiovascular-renal function. The demonstration that in kidney transplanted patients with CNIs induced post-transplanted hypertension, the treatment of hypertension with different antihypertensive drugs inducing a comparable blood pressure reduction but different effects for example on oxidative stress and oxidative stress related proteins and/or Rho kinase and sodium retention, could be helpful for the choice of the antihypertensive treatment in these patients which takes advantage from effects of these drugs beyond blood pressure reduction.

Pathophysiology of Post Transplant Hypertension in Kidney Transplant: Focus on Calcineurin Inhibitors Induced Oxidative Stress and Renal Sodium Retention and Implications with RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway

Calò, Lorenzo A
;
Ravarotto, Verdiana;SIMIONI, FRANCESCA;Naso, Elena;Marchini, Francesco;Bonfante, Luciana;Furian, Lucrezia;Rigotti, Paolo
2017

Abstract

Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule. We examined literature data including those coming from our group regarding the role of oxidative stress and sodium retention in CNIs induced hypertension and their involvement in cardiovascular-renal remodeling. Based on the available data, we have provided support to the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway as an important effector in the pathophysiology of CNIs induced post-transplant hypertension via activation of oxidative stress and sodium retention. Clarification of how the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that regulate the processes involved in CNIs induced post transplant hypertension work and interact, would provide further insights not only into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of CNIs induced post transplant hypertension but could also have a positive impact on the clinical ground through the identification of significant targets. Their specific pharmacologic targeting might have multiple beneficial effects on the whole cardiovascular-renal function. The demonstration that in kidney transplanted patients with CNIs induced post-transplanted hypertension, the treatment of hypertension with different antihypertensive drugs inducing a comparable blood pressure reduction but different effects for example on oxidative stress and oxidative stress related proteins and/or Rho kinase and sodium retention, could be helpful for the choice of the antihypertensive treatment in these patients which takes advantage from effects of these drugs beyond blood pressure reduction.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3243953
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