Ca2+ signals regulate most aspects of animal cell life. They are of particular importance to the nervous system, in which they regulate specific functions, from neuronal development to synaptic plasticity. The homeostasis of cell Ca2+ must thus be very precisely regulated: in all cells Ca2+ pumps transport it from the cytosol to the extracellular medium (the Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ATPases, hereafter referred to as PMCA pumps) or to the lumen of intracellular organelles (the Sarco/Endoplasmatic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase and the Secretory Pathway Ca2+ ATPase, hereafter referred to as SERCA and SPCA pumps, respectively). In neurons and other excitable cells a powerful plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) also exports Ca2+ from cells. Quantitatively, the PMCA pumps are of minor importance to the bulk regulation of neuronal Ca2+. However, they are important in the regulation of Ca2+ in specific sub-plasma membrane microdomains which contain a number of enzymes that are relevant to neuronal function. The PMCA pumps (of which 4 basic isoforms are expressed in animal cells) are P-type ATPases that are characterized by a long C-terminal cytosolic tail which is the site of interaction with most of the regulatory factors of the pump, the most important being calmodulin. In resting neurons, at low intracellular Ca2+the C-terminal tail of the PMCA interacts with the main body of the protein keeping it in an autoinhibited state. Local Ca2+ increase activates calmodulin that removes the C-terminal tail from the inhibitory sites. Dysregulation of the Ca2+ signals are incompatible with healthy neuronal life. A number of genetic mutations of PMCA pumps are associated with pathological phenotypes, those of the neuron-specific PMCA 2 and PMCA 3 being the best characterized. PMCA 2 mutations are associated with deafness and PMCA 3 mutations are linked to cerebellar ataxias. Biochemical analysis of the mutated pumps overexpressed in model cells have revealed their decreased ability to export Ca2+. The defect in the bulk cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis is minor, in keeping with the role of the PMCA pumps in the local control of Ca2+ in specialized plasma membrane microdomains.

The PMCA pumps in genetically determined neuronal pathologies

Calì, Tito;Brini, Marisa;Carafoli, Ernesto
2017

Abstract

Ca2+ signals regulate most aspects of animal cell life. They are of particular importance to the nervous system, in which they regulate specific functions, from neuronal development to synaptic plasticity. The homeostasis of cell Ca2+ must thus be very precisely regulated: in all cells Ca2+ pumps transport it from the cytosol to the extracellular medium (the Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ATPases, hereafter referred to as PMCA pumps) or to the lumen of intracellular organelles (the Sarco/Endoplasmatic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase and the Secretory Pathway Ca2+ ATPase, hereafter referred to as SERCA and SPCA pumps, respectively). In neurons and other excitable cells a powerful plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) also exports Ca2+ from cells. Quantitatively, the PMCA pumps are of minor importance to the bulk regulation of neuronal Ca2+. However, they are important in the regulation of Ca2+ in specific sub-plasma membrane microdomains which contain a number of enzymes that are relevant to neuronal function. The PMCA pumps (of which 4 basic isoforms are expressed in animal cells) are P-type ATPases that are characterized by a long C-terminal cytosolic tail which is the site of interaction with most of the regulatory factors of the pump, the most important being calmodulin. In resting neurons, at low intracellular Ca2+the C-terminal tail of the PMCA interacts with the main body of the protein keeping it in an autoinhibited state. Local Ca2+ increase activates calmodulin that removes the C-terminal tail from the inhibitory sites. Dysregulation of the Ca2+ signals are incompatible with healthy neuronal life. A number of genetic mutations of PMCA pumps are associated with pathological phenotypes, those of the neuron-specific PMCA 2 and PMCA 3 being the best characterized. PMCA 2 mutations are associated with deafness and PMCA 3 mutations are linked to cerebellar ataxias. Biochemical analysis of the mutated pumps overexpressed in model cells have revealed their decreased ability to export Ca2+. The defect in the bulk cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis is minor, in keeping with the role of the PMCA pumps in the local control of Ca2+ in specialized plasma membrane microdomains.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3250108
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