OBJECTIVES: The authors used transthoracic 3-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DE) to characterize tricuspid annulus (TA) geometry and dynamics in healthy volunteers. BACKGROUND: Accurate sizing of the TA is essential for planning tricuspid annuloplasty and for implantation of new percutaneous tricuspid devices. METHODS: 3DE of the TA from 209 healthy volunteers was analyzed using custom software to measure TA area, perimeter, circularity, and dimensions at end diastole (equals tricuspid valve closure), mid-systole, end systole, and late diastole. TA intercommissural distances were measured at mid-systole. For comparison, TA diameters were measured at the same time points on multiplanar reconstruction of the 3DE datasets and on 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DE) apical 4-chamber and right ventricular focused views. In 13 subjects with both 3DE and computed tomography, TA parameters were compared. RESULTS: 3DE TA area, perimeter, and dimensions were largest in late diastole and smallest at mid-systole/end systole. Normal tricuspid valve parameters in end diastole were 8.6 ± 2.0 cm2 for area; 10.5 ± 1.2 cm for perimeter; 36 ± 4 mm and 30 ± 4 mm for longest and shortest dimensions, respectively; and 0.83 ± 0.10 for circularity. There were no age-related changes in TA parameters. Women had larger indexed TA perimeter and longer long-axis dimensions compared with men. The longest 3DE TA dimension was significantly longer than diameters measured from both 2DE and 3D multiplanar reconstruction. 3DE TA area, perimeter, and dimensions correlated with both right atrial and right ventricular volumes, suggesting that both chambers may be determinants of TA size. TA fractional area change was 35 ± 10%. Fractional changes in both perimeter and dimensions were ≥20%. When compared with computed tomography, 3DE systematically underestimated TA parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and body size should be taken into account to identify the reference values of TA dimensions. 2DE underestimates TA dimensions.

3-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis of the Tricuspid Annulus Provides New Insights Into Tricuspid Valve Geometry and Dynamics

Muraru, Denisa
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Cavalli, Giacomo;Badano, Luigi
Writing – Review & Editing
2019

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The authors used transthoracic 3-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DE) to characterize tricuspid annulus (TA) geometry and dynamics in healthy volunteers. BACKGROUND: Accurate sizing of the TA is essential for planning tricuspid annuloplasty and for implantation of new percutaneous tricuspid devices. METHODS: 3DE of the TA from 209 healthy volunteers was analyzed using custom software to measure TA area, perimeter, circularity, and dimensions at end diastole (equals tricuspid valve closure), mid-systole, end systole, and late diastole. TA intercommissural distances were measured at mid-systole. For comparison, TA diameters were measured at the same time points on multiplanar reconstruction of the 3DE datasets and on 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DE) apical 4-chamber and right ventricular focused views. In 13 subjects with both 3DE and computed tomography, TA parameters were compared. RESULTS: 3DE TA area, perimeter, and dimensions were largest in late diastole and smallest at mid-systole/end systole. Normal tricuspid valve parameters in end diastole were 8.6 ± 2.0 cm2 for area; 10.5 ± 1.2 cm for perimeter; 36 ± 4 mm and 30 ± 4 mm for longest and shortest dimensions, respectively; and 0.83 ± 0.10 for circularity. There were no age-related changes in TA parameters. Women had larger indexed TA perimeter and longer long-axis dimensions compared with men. The longest 3DE TA dimension was significantly longer than diameters measured from both 2DE and 3D multiplanar reconstruction. 3DE TA area, perimeter, and dimensions correlated with both right atrial and right ventricular volumes, suggesting that both chambers may be determinants of TA size. TA fractional area change was 35 ± 10%. Fractional changes in both perimeter and dimensions were ≥20%. When compared with computed tomography, 3DE systematically underestimated TA parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and body size should be taken into account to identify the reference values of TA dimensions. 2DE underestimates TA dimensions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3255424
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