Purpose: Despite complex olfactory bulb embryogenesis, its development abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have been poorly investigated. Methods: Brain MRIs of 110 TSC patients (mean age 11.5 years; age range 0.5-38 years; 52 female; 26 TSC1, 68 TSC2, 8 without mutation identified in TSC1 or TSC2, 8 not tested) were retrospectively evaluated. Signal and morphological abnormalities consistent with olfactory bulb hypo/aplasia or with olfactory bulb hamartomas were recorded. Cortical tuber number was visually assessed and a neurological severity score was obtained. Patients with and without rhinencephalon abnormalities were compared using appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests. Results: Eight of110 (7.2%) TSC patients presented rhinencephalon MRI changes encompassing olfactory bulb bilateral aplasia (2/110), bilateral hypoplasia (2/110), unilateral hypoplasia (1/110), unilateral hamartoma (2/110), and bilateral hamartomas (1/110); olfactory bulb hypo/aplasia always displayed ipsilateral olfactory sulcus hypoplasia, while no TSC patient harboring rhinencephalon hamartomas had concomitant forebrain sulcation abnormalities. None of the patients showed overt olfactory deficits or hypogonadism, though young age and poor compliance hampered a proper evaluation in most cases. TSC patients with rhinencephalon changes had more cortical tubers (47 ± 29.1 vs 26.2 ± 19.6; p = 0.006) but did not differ for clinical severity (p = 0.45) compared to the other patients of the sample. Conclusions: Olfactory bulb and/or forebrain changes are not rare among TSC subjects. Future studies investigating clinical consequences in older subjects (anosmia, gonadic development etc.) will define whether rhinencephalon changes are simply an imaging feature among the constellation of TSC-related brain changes or a feature to be searched for possible implications in the management of TSC subjects.

Rhinencephalon changes in tuberous sclerosis complex.

Manara R;Brotto D;Bugin S;Pelizza MF;Sartori S;Nosadini M;Azzolini S;Murgia A;PERON, ANITA;Toldo I.
2018

Abstract

Purpose: Despite complex olfactory bulb embryogenesis, its development abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have been poorly investigated. Methods: Brain MRIs of 110 TSC patients (mean age 11.5 years; age range 0.5-38 years; 52 female; 26 TSC1, 68 TSC2, 8 without mutation identified in TSC1 or TSC2, 8 not tested) were retrospectively evaluated. Signal and morphological abnormalities consistent with olfactory bulb hypo/aplasia or with olfactory bulb hamartomas were recorded. Cortical tuber number was visually assessed and a neurological severity score was obtained. Patients with and without rhinencephalon abnormalities were compared using appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests. Results: Eight of110 (7.2%) TSC patients presented rhinencephalon MRI changes encompassing olfactory bulb bilateral aplasia (2/110), bilateral hypoplasia (2/110), unilateral hypoplasia (1/110), unilateral hamartoma (2/110), and bilateral hamartomas (1/110); olfactory bulb hypo/aplasia always displayed ipsilateral olfactory sulcus hypoplasia, while no TSC patient harboring rhinencephalon hamartomas had concomitant forebrain sulcation abnormalities. None of the patients showed overt olfactory deficits or hypogonadism, though young age and poor compliance hampered a proper evaluation in most cases. TSC patients with rhinencephalon changes had more cortical tubers (47 ± 29.1 vs 26.2 ± 19.6; p = 0.006) but did not differ for clinical severity (p = 0.45) compared to the other patients of the sample. Conclusions: Olfactory bulb and/or forebrain changes are not rare among TSC subjects. Future studies investigating clinical consequences in older subjects (anosmia, gonadic development etc.) will define whether rhinencephalon changes are simply an imaging feature among the constellation of TSC-related brain changes or a feature to be searched for possible implications in the management of TSC subjects.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3278873
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