Abstract Background Metastatic lesions to the proximal femur occur frequently and require special consideration due to the high risk of pathologic fractures. Type of surgery might influence patient survival considering the growing concept of oligometastases. In fact, the use of modular tumor megaprosthesis is increasing in the last decades compared to intramedullary nailing. Aim of this study was to evaluate oncological and functional results of treatment in patients with pathologic or impending fracture of the proximal femur, with patient survival being the primary, complications the secondary, and functional results the tertiary endpoint. Methods Between 2016 and 2017, 40 patients with pathologic fracture (29 cases) or impending fracture according to the Mirels score (11 cases) of the proximal femur, were treated in our Institute and prospectively collected. There were 29 females (72.5%) and 11 males (27.5%), with a mean age at diagnosis of the metastasis of 63.6 years (range 35 to 92 years). Patients were treated due to bone metastases (commonly develop from breast cancer) or hematologic malignancies. Considering number of lesions, 17 patients had less than three bone metastases. Surgical procedures included intramedullary nailing (7 patients), conventional endoprosthesis (4 patients) and modular endoprosthetic replacement (29 patients). Adjuvant treatments included chemotherapy (13 cases), radiation therapy (8 cases) or both (15 cases), and selective arterial embolization (6 pre-op). Oncological results were evaluated considering the survival of patients. Functional results were assessed as pain intensity in VAS score and MSTS score. Results The mean follow-up of patients was 10.2 months (range 6–26.3 years). At the latest evaluation, 23 patients were alive with disease, 3 patients were alive without evidence of disease and 14 patients were dead with disease. There was a significant better survival in patients treated with PFR compared to IMN and EPR groups (p = 0.0080). No differences in term of survival were found comparing impending vs actual pathological fracture and oligo vs multiple metastases. After surgery, all patients experienced improvement in quality of life resulting from reduction in pain. Mean MSTS score was 22.4. The overall complications rate was 22.5%. The most frequent complication was dislocation followed by wound dehiscence and deep infections. Conclusion Modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur replacement provides good functional outcome, relative low incidence of complications and higher life quality in the medium term. Oncologic results were influenced by type of surgery, biased by the correct indications for resection and nailing. Preoperative general health condition, life expectancy and ambulatory capacity may influence treatment strategy. With the numbers available, the patients with actual pathologic or impending fracture of the proximal femur treated with resection had a significantly higher survival, especially those with metastases from renal carcinoma or multiple myeloma.

Treatment of pathologic fractures of the proximal femur

Angelini, Andrea;Trovarelli, Giulia;Berizzi, Antonio;Pala, Elisa;Breda, Anna;MARALDI, MARCO;Ruggieri, Pietro
2018

Abstract

Abstract Background Metastatic lesions to the proximal femur occur frequently and require special consideration due to the high risk of pathologic fractures. Type of surgery might influence patient survival considering the growing concept of oligometastases. In fact, the use of modular tumor megaprosthesis is increasing in the last decades compared to intramedullary nailing. Aim of this study was to evaluate oncological and functional results of treatment in patients with pathologic or impending fracture of the proximal femur, with patient survival being the primary, complications the secondary, and functional results the tertiary endpoint. Methods Between 2016 and 2017, 40 patients with pathologic fracture (29 cases) or impending fracture according to the Mirels score (11 cases) of the proximal femur, were treated in our Institute and prospectively collected. There were 29 females (72.5%) and 11 males (27.5%), with a mean age at diagnosis of the metastasis of 63.6 years (range 35 to 92 years). Patients were treated due to bone metastases (commonly develop from breast cancer) or hematologic malignancies. Considering number of lesions, 17 patients had less than three bone metastases. Surgical procedures included intramedullary nailing (7 patients), conventional endoprosthesis (4 patients) and modular endoprosthetic replacement (29 patients). Adjuvant treatments included chemotherapy (13 cases), radiation therapy (8 cases) or both (15 cases), and selective arterial embolization (6 pre-op). Oncological results were evaluated considering the survival of patients. Functional results were assessed as pain intensity in VAS score and MSTS score. Results The mean follow-up of patients was 10.2 months (range 6–26.3 years). At the latest evaluation, 23 patients were alive with disease, 3 patients were alive without evidence of disease and 14 patients were dead with disease. There was a significant better survival in patients treated with PFR compared to IMN and EPR groups (p = 0.0080). No differences in term of survival were found comparing impending vs actual pathological fracture and oligo vs multiple metastases. After surgery, all patients experienced improvement in quality of life resulting from reduction in pain. Mean MSTS score was 22.4. The overall complications rate was 22.5%. The most frequent complication was dislocation followed by wound dehiscence and deep infections. Conclusion Modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur replacement provides good functional outcome, relative low incidence of complications and higher life quality in the medium term. Oncologic results were influenced by type of surgery, biased by the correct indications for resection and nailing. Preoperative general health condition, life expectancy and ambulatory capacity may influence treatment strategy. With the numbers available, the patients with actual pathologic or impending fracture of the proximal femur treated with resection had a significantly higher survival, especially those with metastases from renal carcinoma or multiple myeloma.
2018
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3283927
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