Background/Objective: The pathophysiological and prognostic role of blood inflammatory cells in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) emerging from recent studies was investigated. Material and Methods: The main available evidence and largely-recent publications were critically analyzed. Results: Several authors reported a direct association between blood eosinophilia and CRSwNP recurrence rates. In some large series, a direct association between recurrent CRSwNP and blood basophil values emerged too. CRSwNP patients’ blood eosinophil and basophil values were strongly related. It was also found that preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, eosinophil-to-lymphocyte, and basophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in patients who experienced a disease relapse than in those who did not. In histologically-confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery, mean blood eosinophil values dropped significantly from before to after the surgical procedure. Conclusions/Significance: CRSwNP endotypes have different inflammatory profiles reflected in the relative proportions of different types of blood cells. The available data support the theory that blood eosinophil and basophil levels should be included in the routine preoperative work-up of CRSwNP patients in order to give patients accurate prognostic information, adopt rational follow-up protocols after surgery, and provide dedicated postoperative medical treatments.
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