The high mortality rate of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is due, in part, to the lack of non-invasive approaches able to accurately detect this silent tumour at early stages, when therapeutic options can be potentially curative or may at least increase the overall survival of patients. The fact that the majority of CCA tumours are not linked to any known aetiological factor highly compromises the monitoring of patients at risk for tumour development and also their early diagnosis. Combination of clinical/biochemical features, imaging techniques and analysis of non-specific tumour biomarkers in serum are commonly used to help in the diagnosis of CCA, but tumour biopsy is usually required to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, no prognostic biomarkers are currently used in the clinical setting, deserving more innovative research, and international validation and consensus. Important efforts have been made in the last years to identify new accurate non-invasive biomarkers, by using innovative techniques and high-throughput omics technologies. This review summarises and discusses the advances in the investigation of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CCA and envisions the future directions in this field of research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cholangiocarcinoma

Cadamuro, Massimiliano;
2019

Abstract

The high mortality rate of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is due, in part, to the lack of non-invasive approaches able to accurately detect this silent tumour at early stages, when therapeutic options can be potentially curative or may at least increase the overall survival of patients. The fact that the majority of CCA tumours are not linked to any known aetiological factor highly compromises the monitoring of patients at risk for tumour development and also their early diagnosis. Combination of clinical/biochemical features, imaging techniques and analysis of non-specific tumour biomarkers in serum are commonly used to help in the diagnosis of CCA, but tumour biopsy is usually required to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, no prognostic biomarkers are currently used in the clinical setting, deserving more innovative research, and international validation and consensus. Important efforts have been made in the last years to identify new accurate non-invasive biomarkers, by using innovative techniques and high-throughput omics technologies. This review summarises and discusses the advances in the investigation of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CCA and envisions the future directions in this field of research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3292489
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