"Cardio-Renal Syndromes" (CRS) are disorders of the heart and kidneys in which acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The pathophysiology of CRS is complex, and there is accumulating evidence that various novel biomarkers are useful for diagnosis, prognostication, and risk stratification in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease (CRS). When both the heart failure (HF) and CKD occur together, it is important to have biomarkers that are able to risk stratify patients by looking at both their heart and kidney aspects. There are some promising newer renal biomarkers that may contribute to a better evaluation and prediction of prognosis in CRS patients. Most of the renal biomarkers studies in CRS have been performed in the setting of cardiac surgery, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), HF or after exposure to radiocontrast media in diagnostic and/or therapeutic percutaneous coronary procedures. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been validated as an important cardiac biomarker for risk stratification and prognostication in HF patients with or without CKD. However, the best cutoff values for each stage of CKD, including those on renal replacement therapy, are yet to be ascertained. In this context, it is likely that panels of multiple biomarkers will be needed for optimal evaluation, risk stratification, timely treatment initiation, and follow-up of patients with CRS.
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