Autophagy, besides ensuring energy metabolism and organelle renewal, is crucial for the biology of adult normal and cancer stem cells. However, it remains incompletely understood how autophagy connects to stemness factors and the nature of the microenvironmental signals that pattern autophagy in different cell types. Here we advance in these directions by reporting that YAP/TAZ transcriptionally control autophagy, being critical for autophagosomal degradation into autolysosomes. YAP/TAZ are downstream effectors of cellular mechanotransduction and indeed we found that cell mechanics, dictated by the physical property of the ECM and cytoskeletal tension, profoundly impact on autophagic flux in a YAP/TAZ-mediated manner. Functionally, by using pancreatic and mammary organoid cultures, we found that YAP/TAZ-regulated autophagy is essential in normal cells for YAP/TAZ-mediated dedifferentiation and acquisition of self-renewing properties. In tumor cells, the YAP/TAZ-autophagy connection is key to sustain transformed traits and for acquisition of a cancer stem cell state by otherwise more benign cells. Mechanistically, YAP/TAZ promote autophagic flux by directly promoting the expression of Armus, a RAB7-GAP required for autophagosome turnover and whose add-back rescues autophagy in YAP/TAZ-depleted cells. These findings expand the influence of YAP/TAZ mechanotransduction to the control of autophagy and, vice versa, the role of autophagy in YAP/TAZ biology, and suggest a mechanism to coordinate transcriptional rewiring with cytoplasmic restructuring during cell reprogramming.

Cell phenotypic plasticity requires autophagic flux driven by YAP/TAZ mechanotransduction

Totaro, Antonio;ZHUANG, QIUYU;Panciera, Tito;Battilana, Giusy;Azzolin, Luca;BRUMANA, GIULIA;Gandin, Alessandro;Brusatin, Giovanna;Cordenonsi, Michelangelo;Piccolo, Stefano
2019

Abstract

Autophagy, besides ensuring energy metabolism and organelle renewal, is crucial for the biology of adult normal and cancer stem cells. However, it remains incompletely understood how autophagy connects to stemness factors and the nature of the microenvironmental signals that pattern autophagy in different cell types. Here we advance in these directions by reporting that YAP/TAZ transcriptionally control autophagy, being critical for autophagosomal degradation into autolysosomes. YAP/TAZ are downstream effectors of cellular mechanotransduction and indeed we found that cell mechanics, dictated by the physical property of the ECM and cytoskeletal tension, profoundly impact on autophagic flux in a YAP/TAZ-mediated manner. Functionally, by using pancreatic and mammary organoid cultures, we found that YAP/TAZ-regulated autophagy is essential in normal cells for YAP/TAZ-mediated dedifferentiation and acquisition of self-renewing properties. In tumor cells, the YAP/TAZ-autophagy connection is key to sustain transformed traits and for acquisition of a cancer stem cell state by otherwise more benign cells. Mechanistically, YAP/TAZ promote autophagic flux by directly promoting the expression of Armus, a RAB7-GAP required for autophagosome turnover and whose add-back rescues autophagy in YAP/TAZ-depleted cells. These findings expand the influence of YAP/TAZ mechanotransduction to the control of autophagy and, vice versa, the role of autophagy in YAP/TAZ biology, and suggest a mechanism to coordinate transcriptional rewiring with cytoplasmic restructuring during cell reprogramming.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3306385
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