BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is the response of the central nervous system to events that interfere with tissue homeostasis and represents a common denominator in virtually all neurological diseases. Activation of microglia, the principal immune effector cells of the brain, contributes to neuronal injury by release of neurotoxic products. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), expressed on the surface of microglia, plays an important role in mediating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation and inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that curcumin and some of its analogues harboring an α,β-unsaturated 1,3-diketone moiety, able to coordinate the magnesium ion, can interfere with LPS-mediated TLR4-myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) signaling. Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are compounds that contain a keto-carbonyl group that binds divalent ions, including magnesium. In addition to their antimicrobial activity, FQs are endowed with immunomodulatory properties, but the mechanism underlying their anti-inflammatory activity remains to be defined. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of these compounds in the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. METHODS: The putative binding mode of five FQs [ciprofloxacin (CPFX), levofloxacin (LVFX), moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, and delafloxacin] to TLR4-MD-2 was determined using molecular docking simulations. The effect of CPFX and LVFX on LPS-induced release of IL-1β and TNF-α and NF-κB activation was investigated in primary microglia by ELISA and fluorescence staining. The interaction of CPFX and LVFX with TLR4-MD-2 complex was assessed by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting using Ba/F3 cells. RESULTS: CPFX and LVFX bound to the hydrophobic region of the MD-2 pocket and inhibited LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of NF-κB in primary microglia. Furthermore, these FQs diminished the binding of LPS to TLR4-MD-2 complex and decreased the resulting TLR4-MD-2 dimerization in Ba/F3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of CPFX and LVFX, which involves, at least in part, the activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings might facilitate the development of new molecules directed at the TLR4-MD-2 complex, a potential key target for controlling neuroinflammation.

Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin attenuate microglia inflammatory response via TLR4/NF-kB pathway

Zusso M.;Franceschini D.;Pagetta A.;Frigo A. C.;Giusti P.
;
Moro S.
2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is the response of the central nervous system to events that interfere with tissue homeostasis and represents a common denominator in virtually all neurological diseases. Activation of microglia, the principal immune effector cells of the brain, contributes to neuronal injury by release of neurotoxic products. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), expressed on the surface of microglia, plays an important role in mediating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation and inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that curcumin and some of its analogues harboring an α,β-unsaturated 1,3-diketone moiety, able to coordinate the magnesium ion, can interfere with LPS-mediated TLR4-myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) signaling. Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are compounds that contain a keto-carbonyl group that binds divalent ions, including magnesium. In addition to their antimicrobial activity, FQs are endowed with immunomodulatory properties, but the mechanism underlying their anti-inflammatory activity remains to be defined. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of these compounds in the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. METHODS: The putative binding mode of five FQs [ciprofloxacin (CPFX), levofloxacin (LVFX), moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, and delafloxacin] to TLR4-MD-2 was determined using molecular docking simulations. The effect of CPFX and LVFX on LPS-induced release of IL-1β and TNF-α and NF-κB activation was investigated in primary microglia by ELISA and fluorescence staining. The interaction of CPFX and LVFX with TLR4-MD-2 complex was assessed by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting using Ba/F3 cells. RESULTS: CPFX and LVFX bound to the hydrophobic region of the MD-2 pocket and inhibited LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of NF-κB in primary microglia. Furthermore, these FQs diminished the binding of LPS to TLR4-MD-2 complex and decreased the resulting TLR4-MD-2 dimerization in Ba/F3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of CPFX and LVFX, which involves, at least in part, the activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings might facilitate the development of new molecules directed at the TLR4-MD-2 complex, a potential key target for controlling neuroinflammation.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
s12974-019-1538-9.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Published (publisher's version)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 3.17 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.17 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3308101
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 148
  • Scopus 302
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 283
social impact