Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are considered emerging environmental pollutants, posing potential risks for human and animal health: the misuse of antimicrobials in food-producing animals could favour the maintenance and spread of resistances in bacteria. The occurrence of ARGs in Italian swine farming – which has specific characteristics – was investigated in order to explore resistance spread dynamics. Two farrow-to-finish pig farms were longitudinally monitored: faecal samples from animals and environmental samples were collected. DNA was extracted and tetA, ermB, qnrS and mcr1 ARGs were analysed by qPCR for their ability to confer resistance to highly or critically important antimicrobials (CIAs). Moreover, 16SrDNA gene was analysed to assess bacterial abundance. ermB and tetA genes were found in animal samples and manure samples. On the contrary, mcr1 was exclusively found in weaners, while qnrS occurred in all animal categories but sows and finishers. Among the analysed genes, ermB and tetA showed the highest absolute and relative abundances. Our results indicate that ermB and tetA ARGs are widely disseminated in the explored farms, suggesting efficient maintenance among bacteria and persistence in the environment. Interestingly, the presence of qnrS and mcr1, limited to just a few animal categories, highlights inefficient dissemination of these genes in the farm environment, in particular for mcr1, a stable plasmid gene conferring resistance to the last-resort antimicrobial, colistin. Paying close attention only to the finishing phase would have hampered the discovery of resistances to CIAs at farm level, which we instead identified thanks to an intensive longitudinal monitoring programme.

Evaluation and quantification of antimicrobial residues and antimicrobial resistance genes in two Italian swine farms

Petrin S.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Patuzzi I.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
DAL CORNO, GIAN FERRUCCIO
Methodology
;
Drigo M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Losasso C.
Conceptualization
;
Cibin V.
Conceptualization
2019

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are considered emerging environmental pollutants, posing potential risks for human and animal health: the misuse of antimicrobials in food-producing animals could favour the maintenance and spread of resistances in bacteria. The occurrence of ARGs in Italian swine farming – which has specific characteristics – was investigated in order to explore resistance spread dynamics. Two farrow-to-finish pig farms were longitudinally monitored: faecal samples from animals and environmental samples were collected. DNA was extracted and tetA, ermB, qnrS and mcr1 ARGs were analysed by qPCR for their ability to confer resistance to highly or critically important antimicrobials (CIAs). Moreover, 16SrDNA gene was analysed to assess bacterial abundance. ermB and tetA genes were found in animal samples and manure samples. On the contrary, mcr1 was exclusively found in weaners, while qnrS occurred in all animal categories but sows and finishers. Among the analysed genes, ermB and tetA showed the highest absolute and relative abundances. Our results indicate that ermB and tetA ARGs are widely disseminated in the explored farms, suggesting efficient maintenance among bacteria and persistence in the environment. Interestingly, the presence of qnrS and mcr1, limited to just a few animal categories, highlights inefficient dissemination of these genes in the farm environment, in particular for mcr1, a stable plasmid gene conferring resistance to the last-resort antimicrobial, colistin. Paying close attention only to the finishing phase would have hampered the discovery of resistances to CIAs at farm level, which we instead identified thanks to an intensive longitudinal monitoring programme.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3312124
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