Trace element-contaminated soils (TECSs) are one of the consequences of the past industrial development worldwide. Excessive exposure to trace elements (TEs) represents a permanent threat to ecosystems and humans worldwide owing to the capacity of metal(loid)s to cross the cell membranes of living organisms and of human epithelia, and their interference with cell metabolism. Quantification of TE bioavailability in soils is complicated due to the polyphasic and reactive nature of soil constituents. To unravel critical factors controlling soil TE bioavailability and to quantify the ecological toxicity of TECSs, TEs are pivotal for evaluating excessive exposure or deficiencies and controlling the ecological risks. While current knowledge on TE bioavailability and related cumulative consequences is growing, the lack of an integrated use of this concept still hinders its utilization for a more holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability and risks for human health. Bioavailability is not generally included in models for decision making in the appraisal of TECS remediation options. In this review we describe the methods for determining the TE bioavailability and technological developments, gaps in current knowledge, and research needed to better understand how TE bioavailability can be controlled by sustainable TECS management altering key chemical properties, which would allow policy decisions for environmental protection and risk management.

Assessment of Methods for Determining Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Soils: A Review

RENELLA G.
Conceptualization
2017

Abstract

Trace element-contaminated soils (TECSs) are one of the consequences of the past industrial development worldwide. Excessive exposure to trace elements (TEs) represents a permanent threat to ecosystems and humans worldwide owing to the capacity of metal(loid)s to cross the cell membranes of living organisms and of human epithelia, and their interference with cell metabolism. Quantification of TE bioavailability in soils is complicated due to the polyphasic and reactive nature of soil constituents. To unravel critical factors controlling soil TE bioavailability and to quantify the ecological toxicity of TECSs, TEs are pivotal for evaluating excessive exposure or deficiencies and controlling the ecological risks. While current knowledge on TE bioavailability and related cumulative consequences is growing, the lack of an integrated use of this concept still hinders its utilization for a more holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability and risks for human health. Bioavailability is not generally included in models for decision making in the appraisal of TECS remediation options. In this review we describe the methods for determining the TE bioavailability and technological developments, gaps in current knowledge, and research needed to better understand how TE bioavailability can be controlled by sustainable TECS management altering key chemical properties, which would allow policy decisions for environmental protection and risk management.
2017
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3313835
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