YAP and TAZ proteins are paralog transcriptional coactivators that shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in response to multiple inputs, including the Hippo pathway; in the nucleus, they pair with DNA-binding factors of the TEAD family to regulate gene expression. Nuclear YAP/TAZ promote cell proliferation, organ overgrowth, survival to stress and dedifferentiation of post-mitotic cells into their respective tissue progenitors. YAP/TAZ are required for growth of embryonic tissues, wound healing and organ regeneration, where they are activated by cell-intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Surprisingly, this activity is dispensable in many adult self-renewing tissues, where YAP/TAZ are constantly kept in check. YAP/TAZ lay at the center of a complex regulatory network including cell-autonomous factors but also cell- and tissue-level structural features such as the mechanical properties of the cell microenvironment, the establishment of cell-cell junctions and of basolateral tissue polarity. Enhanced levels and activity of YAP/TAZ are observed in many cancers, where they sustain tumour growth, drug resistance and malignancy. In this Cell science at a glance and the accompanying poster, we review the biological functions of YAP/TAZ and their regulatory mechanisms, and highlight their position at the center of a complex signaling network.

YAP/TAZ functions and their regulation at a glance

Arianna Pocaterra
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Patrizia Romani
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Sirio Dupont
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2020

Abstract

YAP and TAZ proteins are paralog transcriptional coactivators that shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in response to multiple inputs, including the Hippo pathway; in the nucleus, they pair with DNA-binding factors of the TEAD family to regulate gene expression. Nuclear YAP/TAZ promote cell proliferation, organ overgrowth, survival to stress and dedifferentiation of post-mitotic cells into their respective tissue progenitors. YAP/TAZ are required for growth of embryonic tissues, wound healing and organ regeneration, where they are activated by cell-intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Surprisingly, this activity is dispensable in many adult self-renewing tissues, where YAP/TAZ are constantly kept in check. YAP/TAZ lay at the center of a complex regulatory network including cell-autonomous factors but also cell- and tissue-level structural features such as the mechanical properties of the cell microenvironment, the establishment of cell-cell junctions and of basolateral tissue polarity. Enhanced levels and activity of YAP/TAZ are observed in many cancers, where they sustain tumour growth, drug resistance and malignancy. In this Cell science at a glance and the accompanying poster, we review the biological functions of YAP/TAZ and their regulatory mechanisms, and highlight their position at the center of a complex signaling network.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3317485
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