Background: Esophageal hypercontractility can manifest with and without esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction. We investigated clinical presentations and motility patterns in patients with esophageal hypercontractile disorders. Methods: Esophageal HRM studies fulfilling Chicago Classification 3.0 criteria for jackhammer esophagus (distal contractile integral, DCI >8000 mmHg.cm.s in ≥ 20% swallows) with (n = 30) and without (n = 83) EGJ obstruction (integrated relaxation pressure, IRP > 15 mm Hg) were retrospectively reviewed from five centers (4 in Europe, 1 in US). Single swallows (SS) and multiple rapid swallows (MRS) were analyzed using HRM software tools (IRP, DCI, distal latency, DL); MRS: SS DCI ratio >1 defined contraction reserve. Comparison groups were achalasia type 3 (n = 72, positive control for abnormal inhibition and EGJ obstruction) and healthy controls (n = 18). Symptoms, HRM metrics, and MRS contraction reserve were analyzed within jackhammer subgroups and comparison groups. Key Results: The esophageal smooth muscle was excessively stimulated at baseline in jackhammer subgroups, with lack of augmentation following MRS identified more often compared with controls (P =.003) and type 3 achalasia (P =.07). Consistently abnormal inhibition was identified in type 3 achalasia (47%), and to a lower extent in jackhammer with obstruction (37%, P =.33), jackhammer esophagus (28%, P =.01), and controls (11%, P <.01 compared with type 3 achalasia). Perceptive symptoms (heartburn, chest pain) were common in jackhammer esophagus (P <.01 compared with type 3 achalasia), while transit symptoms (dysphagia) were more frequent with presence of EGJ obstruction (P ≤.01 compared with jackhammer without obstruction). Conclusions and inferences: The balance of excessive excitation and abnormal inhibition defines clinical and manometric manifestations in esophageal hypercontractile disorders.

Jackhammer esophagus with and without esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction demonstrates altered neural control resembling type 3 achalasia

Savarino E.;Ghisa M.;
2019

Abstract

Background: Esophageal hypercontractility can manifest with and without esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction. We investigated clinical presentations and motility patterns in patients with esophageal hypercontractile disorders. Methods: Esophageal HRM studies fulfilling Chicago Classification 3.0 criteria for jackhammer esophagus (distal contractile integral, DCI >8000 mmHg.cm.s in ≥ 20% swallows) with (n = 30) and without (n = 83) EGJ obstruction (integrated relaxation pressure, IRP > 15 mm Hg) were retrospectively reviewed from five centers (4 in Europe, 1 in US). Single swallows (SS) and multiple rapid swallows (MRS) were analyzed using HRM software tools (IRP, DCI, distal latency, DL); MRS: SS DCI ratio >1 defined contraction reserve. Comparison groups were achalasia type 3 (n = 72, positive control for abnormal inhibition and EGJ obstruction) and healthy controls (n = 18). Symptoms, HRM metrics, and MRS contraction reserve were analyzed within jackhammer subgroups and comparison groups. Key Results: The esophageal smooth muscle was excessively stimulated at baseline in jackhammer subgroups, with lack of augmentation following MRS identified more often compared with controls (P =.003) and type 3 achalasia (P =.07). Consistently abnormal inhibition was identified in type 3 achalasia (47%), and to a lower extent in jackhammer with obstruction (37%, P =.33), jackhammer esophagus (28%, P =.01), and controls (11%, P <.01 compared with type 3 achalasia). Perceptive symptoms (heartburn, chest pain) were common in jackhammer esophagus (P <.01 compared with type 3 achalasia), while transit symptoms (dysphagia) were more frequent with presence of EGJ obstruction (P ≤.01 compared with jackhammer without obstruction). Conclusions and inferences: The balance of excessive excitation and abnormal inhibition defines clinical and manometric manifestations in esophageal hypercontractile disorders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3333997
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