Agmatine (AGM) produces a dual effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) mechanism in rat liver mitochondria: at low concentrations, it induces the phenomenon, at high ones, inhibits it. The prevention at high concentrations is evidenced by the significant inhibition of mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+ and phosphate; in this condition, AGM both prevents the release of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) and enhances the release of other pro-apoptotic factors, such as cytochrome c (cyt c) and Smac/DIABLO. As these factors are released without MPT induction, the involvement of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) could be hypothesized. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a powerful inhibitor of MPT, enhanced the AGM-mediated inhibition of swelling, and surprisingly, prevented the release of cyt c and Smac/DIABLO. In the presence of Ca2+, AGM also activated the Bcl-2 family protein Bax, a key factor in inducing MOMP, which is inactivated by CsA. Together with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), Bax forms channels in the outer membrane further supporting the involvement of MOMP in the release of pro-apoptotic factors. In view of the fact that VDAC was inactivated by ruthenium red, which in turn inhibited the release of cyt c, it can be hypothesized that, on the one hand, AGM inhibits MPT induction and, on the other, it selectively permeabilizes the outer membrane via MOMP induction.

Involvement of the biogenic active amine agmatine in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of pro-apoptotic factors

Grancara S.;Garcia-Argaez A. N.;Dalla Via L.
;
Toninello A.;
2020

Abstract

Agmatine (AGM) produces a dual effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) mechanism in rat liver mitochondria: at low concentrations, it induces the phenomenon, at high ones, inhibits it. The prevention at high concentrations is evidenced by the significant inhibition of mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+ and phosphate; in this condition, AGM both prevents the release of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) and enhances the release of other pro-apoptotic factors, such as cytochrome c (cyt c) and Smac/DIABLO. As these factors are released without MPT induction, the involvement of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) could be hypothesized. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a powerful inhibitor of MPT, enhanced the AGM-mediated inhibition of swelling, and surprisingly, prevented the release of cyt c and Smac/DIABLO. In the presence of Ca2+, AGM also activated the Bcl-2 family protein Bax, a key factor in inducing MOMP, which is inactivated by CsA. Together with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), Bax forms channels in the outer membrane further supporting the involvement of MOMP in the release of pro-apoptotic factors. In view of the fact that VDAC was inactivated by ruthenium red, which in turn inhibited the release of cyt c, it can be hypothesized that, on the one hand, AGM inhibits MPT induction and, on the other, it selectively permeabilizes the outer membrane via MOMP induction.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3335375
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