The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID 19), spreading from China all around the world in early 2020, has led scientists to investigate the immuno-mediated mechanisms underlying the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. Depending on the amount of cytokines released as the result of the immunological activation induced by SARS-CoV2, three major clinical phenotypes can be identified: "mild",symbolized as a "drizzle" of cytokines, severe as a "storm", and critical as a "hurricane". In patients with mild symptoms, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is balanced to obtain a defense response against the virus which is often self-limiting and overcomes without tissue damage. In severe phenotype, resembling a "cytokine-release syndrome", SARS-CoV2 causes the lysis of the immune-mediators leading to a cytokine storm able to induce lung epithelium damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In critical patients, the immune response may become uncontrolled, thus the cytokine burst resembles a form of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis which may result in a multi organ failure. In addition to the standard of care, an immune-modulatory therapy tailored to each one of the different phenotypes should be used in order to prevent or reduce the release of cytokines responsible for organ damage and disease progression.

The amount of cytokine-release defines different shades of Sars-Cov2 infection

Bindoli, S;Felicetti, M;Sfriso, P;Doria, A
2020

Abstract

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID 19), spreading from China all around the world in early 2020, has led scientists to investigate the immuno-mediated mechanisms underlying the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. Depending on the amount of cytokines released as the result of the immunological activation induced by SARS-CoV2, three major clinical phenotypes can be identified: "mild",symbolized as a "drizzle" of cytokines, severe as a "storm", and critical as a "hurricane". In patients with mild symptoms, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is balanced to obtain a defense response against the virus which is often self-limiting and overcomes without tissue damage. In severe phenotype, resembling a "cytokine-release syndrome", SARS-CoV2 causes the lysis of the immune-mediators leading to a cytokine storm able to induce lung epithelium damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In critical patients, the immune response may become uncontrolled, thus the cytokine burst resembles a form of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis which may result in a multi organ failure. In addition to the standard of care, an immune-modulatory therapy tailored to each one of the different phenotypes should be used in order to prevent or reduce the release of cytokines responsible for organ damage and disease progression.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3341645
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