Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a well-known family of conserved pattern recognition receptors the importance of which, in non-self recognition, was demonstrated in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Tunicates represent the vertebrate sister group and, as invertebrates, they rely only on innate immunity for their defence. As regards TLRs, two transcripts have been described and characterised in the solitary species Ciona intestinalis, referred to as CiTLR1 and CiTLR2. Using the Ciona TLR nucleotide sequences, we mined our available transcriptome of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri looking for similar sequences. We were able to identify a sequence, with similarity to CiTLR2 and, through in silico transduction and subsequent sequence analysis, we studied the domain content of the putative protein. The sequence, called BsTLR1, has a TIR and a transmembrane domain, four LLR and two LRR-CT domains. It is actively transcribed by both phagocytes and morula cells, the two circulating immunocyte types. In addition, we analysed bstlr1 transcription in vivo and in vitro, in different phases of the Botryllus blastogenetic cycle and under various experimental conditions. Our data show that there is a change in gene expression and mRNA location, according to the blastogenetic phase. Furthermore, we used a commercial antibody raised against the ectodomain of hTLR5 to study the possible functional role of Botryllus TLR(s). We observed that anti-hTLR5 significantly decreased in vitro phagocytosis and morula cell degranulation, two typical responses to the recognition of nonself. Collectively, our data add new information on the mechanisms of nonself recognition in a colonial ascidian.

BsTLR1: A new member of the TLR family of recognition proteins from the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri

Peronato, Anna;Franchi, Nicola;Loriano, Ballarin
2020

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a well-known family of conserved pattern recognition receptors the importance of which, in non-self recognition, was demonstrated in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Tunicates represent the vertebrate sister group and, as invertebrates, they rely only on innate immunity for their defence. As regards TLRs, two transcripts have been described and characterised in the solitary species Ciona intestinalis, referred to as CiTLR1 and CiTLR2. Using the Ciona TLR nucleotide sequences, we mined our available transcriptome of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri looking for similar sequences. We were able to identify a sequence, with similarity to CiTLR2 and, through in silico transduction and subsequent sequence analysis, we studied the domain content of the putative protein. The sequence, called BsTLR1, has a TIR and a transmembrane domain, four LLR and two LRR-CT domains. It is actively transcribed by both phagocytes and morula cells, the two circulating immunocyte types. In addition, we analysed bstlr1 transcription in vivo and in vitro, in different phases of the Botryllus blastogenetic cycle and under various experimental conditions. Our data show that there is a change in gene expression and mRNA location, according to the blastogenetic phase. Furthermore, we used a commercial antibody raised against the ectodomain of hTLR5 to study the possible functional role of Botryllus TLR(s). We observed that anti-hTLR5 significantly decreased in vitro phagocytosis and morula cell degranulation, two typical responses to the recognition of nonself. Collectively, our data add new information on the mechanisms of nonself recognition in a colonial ascidian.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3351663
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