The in solution synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS technique has been used to investigate an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) related to Parkinson's disease, the α-synuclein (α-syn), in prefibrillar diluted conditions. SAXS experiments have been performed as a function of temperature and concentration on the wild type (WT) and on the three pathogenic mutants G51D, E46K, and A53T. To identify the conformers that populate WT α-syn and the pathogenic mutants in prefibrillar conditions, scattering data have been analyzed by a new variational bayesian weighting method (VBWSAS) based on an ensemble of conformers, which includes unfolded monomers, trimers, and tetramers, both in helical-rich and strand-rich forms. The developed VBWSAS method uses a thermodynamic scheme to account for temperature and concentration effects and considers long-range protein-protein interactions in the framework of the random phase approximation. The global analysis of the whole set of data indicates that WT α-syn is mostly present as unfolded monomers and trimers (helical-rich trimers at low T and strand-rich trimers at high T), but not tetramers, as previously derived by several studies. On the contrary, different conformer combinations characterize mutants. In the α-syn G51D mutant, the most abundant aggregates at all the temperatures are strand-rich tetramers. Strand-rich tetramers are also the predominant forms in the A53T mutant, but their weight decreases with temperature. Only monomeric conformers, with a preference for the ones with the smallest sizes, are present in the E46K mutant. The derived conformational behavior then suggests a different availability of species prone to aggregate, depending on mutation, temperature, and concentration and accounting for the different neurotoxicity of α-syn variants. Indeed, this approach may be of pivotal importance to describe conformational and aggregational properties of other IDPs.

Comprehensive Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of Prefibrillar WT α-Synuclein and Its G51D, E46K, and A53T Mutants by a Combination of Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Variational Bayesian Weighting

Plotegher, Nicoletta
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Bubacco, Luigi
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Beltramini, Mariano
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2020

Abstract

The in solution synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS technique has been used to investigate an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) related to Parkinson's disease, the α-synuclein (α-syn), in prefibrillar diluted conditions. SAXS experiments have been performed as a function of temperature and concentration on the wild type (WT) and on the three pathogenic mutants G51D, E46K, and A53T. To identify the conformers that populate WT α-syn and the pathogenic mutants in prefibrillar conditions, scattering data have been analyzed by a new variational bayesian weighting method (VBWSAS) based on an ensemble of conformers, which includes unfolded monomers, trimers, and tetramers, both in helical-rich and strand-rich forms. The developed VBWSAS method uses a thermodynamic scheme to account for temperature and concentration effects and considers long-range protein-protein interactions in the framework of the random phase approximation. The global analysis of the whole set of data indicates that WT α-syn is mostly present as unfolded monomers and trimers (helical-rich trimers at low T and strand-rich trimers at high T), but not tetramers, as previously derived by several studies. On the contrary, different conformer combinations characterize mutants. In the α-syn G51D mutant, the most abundant aggregates at all the temperatures are strand-rich tetramers. Strand-rich tetramers are also the predominant forms in the A53T mutant, but their weight decreases with temperature. Only monomeric conformers, with a preference for the ones with the smallest sizes, are present in the E46K mutant. The derived conformational behavior then suggests a different availability of species prone to aggregate, depending on mutation, temperature, and concentration and accounting for the different neurotoxicity of α-syn variants. Indeed, this approach may be of pivotal importance to describe conformational and aggregational properties of other IDPs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3352250
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