Background: Cardiac disorders are the second leading cause of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Limited literature is available on pediatric AIS caused by cardiac myxoma, a rare tumor in childhood. Methods: We describe a new case of pediatric AIS due to a previously unknown atrial myxoma and we conduct a literature review on children with AIS due to cardiac myxoma. Results: We identified 41 published pediatric cases of AIS and cardiac myxoma, including ours (56% males, median age at AIS was 11 years [range: 3-18]). AIS presentation was most frequently with hemiparesis/hemiplegia (89%). Multiple brain ischemic lesions were detected in 69% of patients, and arteriopathy in 91%. Seven patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy. At AIS presentation, 73% of children had one or more of the following clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a possible underlying cardiac myxoma: Carney's complex, cardiac auscultation abnormalities, extraneurological symptoms/signs, such as skin signs (12, 38, and 65%, respectively). Cardiac myxoma was diagnosed within 72 hours in 68% of cases. Death occurred in 11%, and 40% had persistent neurological deficits. Conclusion: Neurological presentation of AIS due to cardiac myxoma is similar to that of AIS with other etiologies, although clues suggesting a possible underlying cardiac myxoma can be detected in most cases. A timely diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in patients with AIS may favor prompt identification of candidates for endovascular therapy. Therefore, we suggest that in otherwise-healthy children presenting with AIS, transthoracic echocardiography should be performed early after stroke presentation.

Cardiac Myxoma as a Rare Cause of Pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke: Case Report and Literature Review.

Tona C;Nosadini M;Pelizza MF;Pin JN;Boniver C;Causin F;Toldo I;Sartori S
2020

Abstract

Background: Cardiac disorders are the second leading cause of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Limited literature is available on pediatric AIS caused by cardiac myxoma, a rare tumor in childhood. Methods: We describe a new case of pediatric AIS due to a previously unknown atrial myxoma and we conduct a literature review on children with AIS due to cardiac myxoma. Results: We identified 41 published pediatric cases of AIS and cardiac myxoma, including ours (56% males, median age at AIS was 11 years [range: 3-18]). AIS presentation was most frequently with hemiparesis/hemiplegia (89%). Multiple brain ischemic lesions were detected in 69% of patients, and arteriopathy in 91%. Seven patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy. At AIS presentation, 73% of children had one or more of the following clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a possible underlying cardiac myxoma: Carney's complex, cardiac auscultation abnormalities, extraneurological symptoms/signs, such as skin signs (12, 38, and 65%, respectively). Cardiac myxoma was diagnosed within 72 hours in 68% of cases. Death occurred in 11%, and 40% had persistent neurological deficits. Conclusion: Neurological presentation of AIS due to cardiac myxoma is similar to that of AIS with other etiologies, although clues suggesting a possible underlying cardiac myxoma can be detected in most cases. A timely diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in patients with AIS may favor prompt identification of candidates for endovascular therapy. Therefore, we suggest that in otherwise-healthy children presenting with AIS, transthoracic echocardiography should be performed early after stroke presentation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3356332
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