True cardiac regeneration of the injured heart has been broadly described in lower vertebrates by active replacement of lost cardiomyocytes to functionally and structurally restore the myocardial tissue. On the contrary, following severe injury (i.e., myocardial infarction) the adult mammalian heart is endowed with an impaired reparative response by means of meager wound healing program and detrimental remodeling, which can lead over time to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Lately, a growing body of basic, translational and clinical studies have supported the therapeutic use of stem cells to provide myocardial regeneration, with the working hypothesis that stem cells delivered to the cardiac tissue could result into new cardiovascular cells to replenish the lost ones. Nevertheless, multiple independent evidences have demonstrated that injected stem cells are more likely to modulate the cardiac tissue via beneficial paracrine effects, which can enhance cardiac repair and reinstate the embryonic program and cell cycle activity of endogenous cardiac stromal cells and resident cardiomyocytes. Therefore, increasing interest has been addressed to the therapeutic profiling of the stem cell-derived secretome (namely the total of cell-secreted soluble factors), with specific attention to cell-released extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, carrying cardioprotective and regenerative RNA molecules. In addition, the use of cardiac decellularized extracellular matrix has been recently suggested as promising biomaterial to develop novel therapeutic strategies for myocardial repair, as either source of molecular cues for regeneration, biological scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering or biomaterial platform for the functional release of factors. In this review, we will specifically address the translational relevance of these two approaches with ad hoc interest in their feasibility to rejuvenate endogenous mechanisms of cardiac repair up to functional regeneration.

Young at Heart: Combining Strategies to Rejuvenate Endogenous Mechanisms of Cardiac Repair

Maghin E.;Bollini S.
2020

Abstract

True cardiac regeneration of the injured heart has been broadly described in lower vertebrates by active replacement of lost cardiomyocytes to functionally and structurally restore the myocardial tissue. On the contrary, following severe injury (i.e., myocardial infarction) the adult mammalian heart is endowed with an impaired reparative response by means of meager wound healing program and detrimental remodeling, which can lead over time to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Lately, a growing body of basic, translational and clinical studies have supported the therapeutic use of stem cells to provide myocardial regeneration, with the working hypothesis that stem cells delivered to the cardiac tissue could result into new cardiovascular cells to replenish the lost ones. Nevertheless, multiple independent evidences have demonstrated that injected stem cells are more likely to modulate the cardiac tissue via beneficial paracrine effects, which can enhance cardiac repair and reinstate the embryonic program and cell cycle activity of endogenous cardiac stromal cells and resident cardiomyocytes. Therefore, increasing interest has been addressed to the therapeutic profiling of the stem cell-derived secretome (namely the total of cell-secreted soluble factors), with specific attention to cell-released extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, carrying cardioprotective and regenerative RNA molecules. In addition, the use of cardiac decellularized extracellular matrix has been recently suggested as promising biomaterial to develop novel therapeutic strategies for myocardial repair, as either source of molecular cues for regeneration, biological scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering or biomaterial platform for the functional release of factors. In this review, we will specifically address the translational relevance of these two approaches with ad hoc interest in their feasibility to rejuvenate endogenous mechanisms of cardiac repair up to functional regeneration.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3358912
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