The term children interstitial lung diseases (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that diffusely affect the lung. ChILD specific to children younger than 2 years of age include diffuse developmental disorders, growth abnormalities, specific conditions of undefined etiology (neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy and pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis) and surfactant protein disorders. Clinical manifestations are highly variable, ranging from the absence of relevant symptoms to a severe onset. Most commonly, chILD presents with nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, such as dyspnea, polypnea, dry cough, wheezing, recurrent respiratory infections and exercise intolerance. In the diagnostic approach to a child with suspected ILD, chest high resolution computed tomography and genetic tests play a central role. Then, if the diagnosis remains uncertain, laryngotracheal-bronchoscopy and lung biopsy are needed. Pharmacological treatment is mostly empiric and based on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs including corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Despite chILD overall rarity, pediatric pulmonologists must be familiar with these diseases in order to carry out a timely diagnosis and patient treatment.

Children's Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Diseases (ChILD) in 2020

Ferraro, Valentina Agnese;Zanconato, Stefania;Zamunaro, Andrea;Carraro, Silvia
2020

Abstract

The term children interstitial lung diseases (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that diffusely affect the lung. ChILD specific to children younger than 2 years of age include diffuse developmental disorders, growth abnormalities, specific conditions of undefined etiology (neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy and pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis) and surfactant protein disorders. Clinical manifestations are highly variable, ranging from the absence of relevant symptoms to a severe onset. Most commonly, chILD presents with nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, such as dyspnea, polypnea, dry cough, wheezing, recurrent respiratory infections and exercise intolerance. In the diagnostic approach to a child with suspected ILD, chest high resolution computed tomography and genetic tests play a central role. Then, if the diagnosis remains uncertain, laryngotracheal-bronchoscopy and lung biopsy are needed. Pharmacological treatment is mostly empiric and based on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs including corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Despite chILD overall rarity, pediatric pulmonologists must be familiar with these diseases in order to carry out a timely diagnosis and patient treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3361703
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